31 August 2022

JOURNAL: Grotiana XLIII (2022) [Grotian Moments, vol. 2]


(image source: Brill)

Grotian Moments, Vol. 2: Introduction (Tom Sparks & Mark Somos) (OPEN ACCESS)

International Environmental Law: of Sovereignty, Complexity, and Grotian Moments (Jutta Brunnée) (DOI 10.1163/18760759-43010002)

The Grotian Moment concept provides a lens through which to reflect on the enduring hold of state sovereignty on international environmental law. The article traces the development of the field’s customary rule framework and canvasses efforts to push its conceptual boundaries beyond the inter-state paradigm. Given their dominant role in the field, the article then provides a brief overview of treaty-based approaches to the development of international environmental law. It focuses on the global response to the climate emergency, as illustrative of how international environmental law has evolved in response to the challenges posed by complex crises. The article concludes by suggesting that international environmental law is unlikely to see a Grotian Moment at the level of customary international law, but that it does hold potential for the new thinking and new approaches that could produce a ‘quasi’ Grotian Moment.

Expanding Universe: Grotian Moments in the Practice of the UN Security Council (Inger Österdahl) (DOI 10.1163/18760759-43010003) (OPEN ACCESS)


This contribution explores Grotian Moments in the practice of the UN Security Council in three different but closely related subject areas. The three areas are, in turn, the way the Security Council interprets the concept of ‘threat to the peace’ or more generally ‘international peace and security’, the law-making by the Security Council, and the subjects – in the sense of legal or natural persons – that the Security Council chooses to address. It turns out that the interpretation by the Security Council of the UN Charter has been remarkably flexible, expanding the scope of action of the Council considerably. Whether its interpretation of the UN Charter also deserves to be labelled ‘Grotian’, however, is rather a matter of rhetoric than law.

Corruption in International Law: Illusions of a Grotian Moment (Simona Ross & Mark Somos)  (DOI 10.1163/18760759-43010004) (OPEN ACCESS)


Has there already been a Grotian Moment for corruption? If not, what would it take for new legal rules and doctrines on corruption to crystallise? This article seeks to answer these two questions by reviewing the relevant history of international legal scholarship, the current public international law framework for anticorruption, and recent developments in international legal practice. We conclude that a Grotian Moment may have been reached for a narrow concept of corruption, focused on petty corruption and bribery, with the proliferation of international anticorruption law following the Cold War. However, a Grotian Moment for a broadened understanding of corruption, based on other forms such as institutional, political, and grand corruption, ought to emerge to comprehensively address all forms of corruption. Given the range of challenges, including resistance from political elites and the indeterminacy of criminal liability, a Grotian Moment for a broadened concept of corruption remains improbable.

Data Surveillance Since the Snowden Revelations: A Grotian Moment in International Law? (Milan Tahraoui)


Mass data surveillance practices have received heightened attention in international law since the Snowden revelations of 2013. In this article, I examine whether that attention has given rise to a “Grotian moment” regarding the regulation of these activities under international law. At the outset, I answer that question in the negative and conclude that no general customary international law rules have emerged. Yet, that is not the end of the story. At a more fundamental and conceptual level, far reaching transformative process are underway in international law within the context of datafication. These concern new forms of power and/or control over data flows, and data surveillance practices are an inherent feature of that power. I contend that although there is no accelerated process of customary international law formation regarding data surveillance activities, it may be that a prolonged, epochal, Grotian moment is taking place. To that end, I argue that data surveillance must be understood as one manifestation of a broader constellation of shifts, through which ‘developments that profoundly impact the logic of territory or/and the “logic of capital” without signalling the arrival of a new international order’ are arguably in the making.

(Meta) Grotian Moment: International Organizations and the Rapid Formation of Customary International Law (Lorenzo Gasbarri) (DOI  10.1163/18760759-43010006)


In this paper, I first discuss the concept of ‘Grotian Moment’ in the context of the capacity of international organizations to contribute to the formation and identification of customary international law. Afterward, I apply three levels to discuss the time element of the formation of custom. At the micro-level of the institutional practice, the time required to form a customary norm may depend on whether each form of practice is directed to the institutional or to the international dimension. At the level of the organ, I reflect on the difference played by the presence or absence of member States in the institutional organ that adopts the practice relevant for custom formation. At the macro-level of the characteristics of the organization, I distinguish between so-called supranational and functional organizations. In general, I exclude the relevance of speaking in terms of a ‘Moment’ that produces a paradigm shift, and I stress the continuous change to which international law is subject.

Statehood: A Grotian Moment 2 (Milena Sterio) (DOI 10.1163/18760759-43010007) 


Grotian Moments are instances of accelerated formation of customary law, sparked by significant world events, such as wars, terrorism attacks, developments in technology, or natural catastrophes. This article will apply the Grotian Moment theory to the legal criteria of statehood, in an attempt to assess whether an evolution in specific elements of statehood has resulted in such paradigm-shifting Grotian Moments. In particular, this article will argue that the evolving political nature of our world order has contributed toward the need to re-conceptualize the legal theory of statehood. This article will thus posit that this constitutes a so-called Grotian Moment 2: a period of time when significant contestation of prevailing international legal norms and institutions occurs, and when novel thinking, norms and institutions attempt to replace elements of the old but may not succeed in doing so. This article posits that developments in the legal theory of statehood may be best described as Grotian Moment 2 although various historical and political developments have reshaped our contemporaneous conception of statehood, it may be argued that international law itself has neither contributed to the evolution of a new legal theory of statehood nor changed its own norms.

Grotian Moments in the Law of Self-Determination: Law, Rhetoric, and Reality (Tom Sparks) (DOI 10.1163/18760759-43010008)


Self-determination is one of international law’s most reviled and yet most important principles. The legal development of self-determination – or specific forms thereof – as a customary norm of international law has been shaped and spurred by key moments. These include the American and French declarations of 1776 and 1789, the conclusion of the UN Charter, and the General Assembly’s resolution 1514 (xv) in 1960. This article analyses whether, in characterising the effect of such moments, the label ‘Grotian’ moment adds meaningfully to the analysis. It concludes that the example of self-determination suggests that the ‘Grotian’ moment concept is not meaningfully illuminating; tending either to reduce to a slight of hand in favour of the so-called ‘Great Powers’, or alternatively to pathologise developments that would be amenable to standard forms of customary legal analysis.

Ancient Geographers and Modern Travelogues in the Early Seventeenth Century. The Difference between Hugo Grotius’s Bewys van den waren Godsdienst (1622) and De veritate religionis christianae (1627–40) (Silke-Petra Bergjan) (DOI 10.1163/18760759-43010009)


The Bewys van den waren Godsdienst and De veritate religionis Christianae originated against the background of Grotius’s familiarity with classical literature. To understand the innovative impact of these writings, the historical method applied must be considered. Grotius did not rely on authorities, but was compiling historical witnesses for the three religions. The availability and visibility of the witness reports are regularly referred to in the text. Thus, history and classical historians enter the picture. Interestingly, this cannot be separated from the debate about the methods to be used in geography, a matter that gains importance as the difference between Bewys and De veritate is nowhere as visible as in the geographical references. The generous sprinkling of place names from different continents contributes to the poem’s factual character. The place names in the Bewys derive from the Dutch sea trade and can be found in the travel reports of the time. This is elucidated by two examples: the island Waygat in the Artic, and the coast of Mina in the Gulf of Guinea. In De veritate, however, all such references are removed. In their stead appear examples from ancient topography, to be annotated in the 1640 edition with ample quotations from Pliny, Strabo, Josephus and others.

Hugo Grotius’s De iure belli ac pacis: a Report on the Worldwide Census of the First Edition (1625) (Edward Jones Corredera, Francesca Iurlarlo, Laura Muschel & Mark Somos) (DOI 10.1163/18760759-43010010)


This article provides new information on the publication history of the first edition of the text that, according to many scholars, laid the ground for the growth of international law: Hugo Grotius’s De iure belli ac pacis. Drawing on the preliminary findings of the Grotius Census Project at the Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law, funded by the German Research Foundation (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft), the following pages shed light on the first three states of the typescript, the sources that Grotius had access to in France while drafting the book, and the early circulation of the 1625 edition, published by Nicolas Buon in Paris. The goal of this publication is to disseminate updated information on the printing history of this key text in the history of legal and political thought, and to invite readers to come forward with more information about the location of the remaining copies of the text, in order to advance our understanding of the rise of international law around the world.

Hugo Grotius’s De iure belli ac pacis: a Report on the Worldwide Census of the Second Edition (1626) (Edward Jones Corredera, Francesca Iurlarlo, Laura Muschel & Mark Somos) (DOI 10.1163/18760759-43010011)


The first edition of Hugo Grotius’s De iure belli ac pacis was published in Paris by Nicolas Buon in 1625. An unauthorised second edition appeared in Frankfurt a year later, from the reputable Wechel press. After Grotius made hundreds of changes to the first and second states of the first edition, and failed to convince the publisher Nicolas Buon of the merits of printing yet another edition of the book, the Wechels’s release of a new edition sought to capitalise on the high demand for the text, as copies had sold out in Central Europe by the summer of 1625. In this preliminary report on the 1626 edition, using online and card catalogues, we have located 59 surviving copies. We examined thirteen copies in person, and another three fully digitised copies online, and on the basis of this small sample we have been able to draw a number of conclusions. We hope that this research note on preliminary results will generate interest in this unduly neglected edition, and that readers will kindly bring further copies to our attention.

 Book reviews

Read more with Brill.

30 August 2022

JOURNAL: Zeitschrift der Savigny-Stiftung für Rechtsgeschichte: Germanistische Abteilung vol. CXXXIX (2022), No. 1 (Jul)


(image source: De Gruyter)

I. Erzähltes Recht – Neue Wege zum mittelalterlichen Rechtsbegriff (Gerhard Dilcher) (DOI 10.1515/zrgg-2022-0001)


Narrations of Law. New paths to a conception of medieval law. The article, starting from a review of two publications on medieval Scandinavian literature, tries to find out the role of law in the sagas of medieval Iceland, dealing with mostly bloody conflicts in a society without a ruler or state. Different from classical legal history, today we have to understand law in this context not as a systematic order of norms, but instead as an oral tradition in a world of mainly violent solutions of conflicts by revenge, partly by mediation or arbitration, seldom through a legal proceeding. Not a norm of law, but a compensation in relation to the honour or social position of the parties is the key for a solution. – The theory of a radical cultural change in history (axial age) turns out to be useful for understanding the changing role of law in medieval societies, including Scandinavia.

II. Calefurnia – eine römische Frau im Sachsenspiegel? Zur schriftlichen, mündlichen und rechtsikonografischen Überlieferung (Raphael Holfeld, Julia-Katharina Horn) (DOI 10.1515/zrgg-2022-0002)


Calefurnia – a Roman woman in the Sachsenspiegel? Written, oral, and iconographic traditions. The reference to Calefurnia in Sachsenspiegel Landrecht II 63 § 1 has sparked several theories about how Eike came to know the story of the Roman woman Carfania mentioned in D. 3,1,1,5. Did he have access to the Digest? Did he undergo higher education in a monastery? Was he educated in Roman canon law? This article argues that he might have been inspired by a broadly used exemplum of Carfania as a litigious and talkative woman. By pointing out differences between the Digest and an ordo iudiciarius ‘Tractaturi de iudiciis’, it strongly opposes Landau’s thesis about the source of Eike’s knowledge by pointing out resemblances to Val. Max. VIII,3. A Schwabenspiegel manuscript of 1287 adds the interesting detail of Kæfurna showing her bare backside to the emperor. This storyline can also be traced through medieval and early modern literature. Puzzlingly enough, a Dutch Sachsenspiegel manuscript from the 15th century tells yet another version of the story referring to calefurnan ‘breaking wind’. The Sachsenspiegel picture books show Calefurnia with an unidentifiable object in varying shapes that has been interpreted as a depiction of misbehaviour considering the different additions to the story. Overall, the alterations of the anecdote offer a glimpse into the rich tradition surrounding the story of Calefurnia respectively Carfania.

III. Zunft und Unordnung Zur Rechtsstellung der Zünfte in Frankfurt am Main und Hamburg, 1350–1380 (Jasper Kunstreich) (DOI 10.1515/zrgg-2022-0003)


Guilds between authority and opposition. This paper compares the legal status of guilds in two German towns of the late Middle Ages: Frankfurt am Main and Hamburg. Both cities represented commercial hubs, Frankfurt with its privilege to hold fairs, Hamburg as a port town and member of the Hanse. Both cities also witnessed unrest and public protest by guilds during the second half of the 14th century. This article argues that those conflicts erupted over the guilds’ attempts to formalise their legal status by having their statutes written and acknowledged by the city council. The council eventually pre-empted those attempts. This happened through a process of bargaining that can be subdivided into three different stages: production of written demands or statutes, destabilisation, escalation. Putting something into writing created a qualitative distinction to orality in a society that was predominantly communicating orally and in presence. Thus, the latter was still the mode of political communication, mainly by swearing an oath, that could settle these conflicts. Where this process failed, the conflict could erupt into open violence, which in turn could only be settled by outside intervention – as in the case of Frankfurt.

IV. Konrad Maurers Briefe in öffentlichen Sammlungen mit einer Probe seiner Briefe aus Christiania 1876 (Hans Fix) (DOI 10.1515/zrgg-2022-0004)


Konrad Maurer’s Letters in Public Library and Archive Collections. This paper accounts for both the hitherto little known depositories and the considerable amount of widely dispersed letters that came down to us written by Konrad Maurer, professor of law in Munich, between 1846 and 1900 to colleagues and friends in Germany, England, the Nordic Countries, and the United States of America. This account is supplemented by lists of letters both of Konrad Maurer’s wife Valérie on his behalf and of the relatively few letters to Konrad Maurer that have survived.

V. Dornröschens Erwachen im Recht der Willensmängel – ein misslungenes Scheingeschäft vor dem Reichsgericht (Jan Thiessen) (DOI 10.1515/zrgg-2022-0005)


The Awakening of Sleeping Beauty in an Absence of Intent – a Failed Simulated Transaction in the German Imperial Supreme Court. When the Friedrich Krupp Corporation promised to supply gas to the City of Bochum in 1910, the parties of this long-term contract could not anticipate the scarcity of raw materials during the upcoming First World War. In the aftermath of the war, Krupp was not able to provide for the quality that had initially been stipulated. Nevertheless, the parties prolongated the contract. When the City of Bochum insisted in proper fulfilment, Krupp argued that the prolongation of the contract according to the original conditions had been a simulated transaction the City of Bochum could not insist on. In 1941, the German Imperial Supreme Court denied the applicability of the provisions of the German Civil Code concerning an absence of intent, holding that each and every simulated transaction to be certified within an official document must be considered fraudulent. This article reviews the court’s decision in the light of its ideological background.

Gastbeitrag (Joachim Rückert) (DOI 10.1515/zrgg-2022-0006)

Das Gesetzbuch als Botschaft? – für eine andere Gesetzgebungsgeschichte (Pio Caroni)  (DOI 10.1515/zrgg-2022-0007)


The Code as Message? Call for a Different Legislative History. The contribution examines the history of codification from a new perspective. The focus is not on the perspective of the legislator but rather on the perspective of those subjected to the laws. For, in fact, it is them who decide on the fate of the codification. Thus, a painstaking – and often tedious – history of impact should complete, that is replace the hitherto common and less complex textual history. Only such a history of impact enables more differentiated statements about the fate and importance of the code, for which a few examples are given.

Lehnswesen revisited: Dänemark als regionaler Sonder- oder europäischer Normalfall im Mittelalter? Aufgaben und Perspektiven der Forschung (Oliver Auge) (DOI 10.1515/zrgg-2022-0008)


Feudalism revisited: Denmark as a regional special or a European normal case in the Middle Ages? Research Tasks and Perspectives. In 1994, Susan Reynolds questioned the ideal type of the feudalism designed in the 19th and 20th centuries in her monograph “Fiefs and Vassals” fundamentally. While it has not been possible to refute Reynold’s theses entirely, some of their thrust could be taken from them by regional example studies. Apparently, there was a feudal system in the High Middle Ages, but with regional variants – not in the lawful pure form, as Heinrich Mitteis still held in the first half of the 20th century. The essay outlines the opportunities and perspectives of future mediaeval research on feudalism, using the promising regional case study of Denmark.

Ergänzungen zu „Deutsche Rechtsbücher des Mittelalters und ihre Handschriften“ (Ulrich-Dieter Oppitz)  (DOI 10.1515/zrgg-2022-0009)


Addenda to ‚German medieval law Books and their manuscripts‘. This article presents newly discovered manuscripts and single leaves of German-language customary law books. It describes variations to the manusripts and single leaves listed in U.-D. Oppitz, “Deutsche Rechtsbücher des Mittelalters”, vol. II, Cologne 1990.

Anmerkungen zur Edition „De Saksenspiegel in Nederland, Eerste stuk – Oudere tekst“ von Barthold Jacob Lintelo Baron de Geer van Jutphaas (Raphael Holfeld)  (DOI 10.1515/zrgg-2022-0010)


Notes on the edition ‘De Saksenspiegel in Nederland, Eerste stuk – Oudere tekst’ of Barthold Jacob Lintelo Baron de Geer van Jutphaas. The article sheds light on the Dutch Sachsenspiegel, which has hardly been noticed in research so far, and gives an overview of the manuscripts, their history and relationship. The only comparative edition from 1888 contains both textual and methodological errors in the first volume on the older text. This article concludes with a correction of the edition’s most significant deficiencies.

Vertragstypenzwang im Code civil? Die Gültigkeit gegenseitiger Verträge in der Judikatur der Freien Stadt Krakau (1815–1846) (Andrzej Dziadzio)  (DOI 10.1515/zrgg-2022-0011)


Contract-nominalism in the Code civil? The validity of bilateral agreements in the judicature of the courts of the Free City of Krakow (1815–1846). The courts of the Free City of Kraków, when applying Article 1325 of the Code civil, adopted a different direction from the courts in Baden or the French judiciary, both of which modified its strict content. In addition to the differences between the Polish, German and French judicatures, there were inconsistencies between individual judgements relating to the form of bilateral agreements in all three cases. As a result, the citizens of the Free City of Kraków, the Grand Duchy of Baden, or France, had no sufficient certainty as to whether their contracts would be adequately protected in the event of a dispute between the parties. The analyzed cases show a convergence of the jurisprudence of the Baden and French courts, which presented a bolder approach to the issue of the validity of bilateral agreements, thereby protecting the Code Civil principle of the freedom of contracts. Kraków courts refrained from such a creative interpretation of the article 1325 and based their rulings on its literal wording. This was partly due to the fact that Polish scholars and judges did not have easy access to the achievements of French jurisprudence at that time. The courts of Baden adjudicated in more favourable conditions, because French and German legal thoughts on the implementation of Code Civil intertwined and complemented each other. 

Vorläufige Beobachtungen zu einem Mammutverfahren am Oberappellationsgericht Lübeck (1819–1835) (Ulrich Falk)  (DOI 10.1515/zrgg-2022-0012)


Preliminary Observations on a Mammoth Civil Procedure at the Oberappellationsgericht Lübeck (1819–1835). This miscellany reviews an important contribution to the research on German judicature in the 19th century by legal historian Peter Oestmann: “Zur Gerichtspraxis im 19. Jahrhundert. Ein Schmuggeleiprozess am Oberappellationsgericht Lübeck”, two parts, 2019. His edition contains the complete text of five case files of a fiercely contested civil trial, the so-called “smuggling case”. The judges, headed by their presiding judge Arnold Heise, a former professor in Heidelberg and Göttingen and famous representative of the German Pandektenwissenschaft, did their very best. Nevertheless, it took them 16 years to put an end to this intractable legal and social conflict. The far from convincing result of their efforts raises questions, outlined in the second part of the miscellany. Further research has to be conducted to reach conclusions.

Izutarō Suehiro (1888–1951), Uso no kōyō / Die Nützlichkeit der Lüge (1922)1) (Stefan Vogl) (DOI 10.1515/zrgg-2022-0013)


Izutarō Suehiro (1888–1951), Uso no kōyō The Utility of Lies (1922). This translation presents an essay by the influential professor for private law at Tokyo Imperial University, Izutarō Suehiro that gives some insight into the historical roots of modern Japanese civil law methodology as it highlights the shift in Japanese jurisprudence away from the so-called German ‘conceptual jurisprudence’. Rejecting the traditional formalistic application of rigid statutory law, which in Suehiro’s eyes forced judges regularly to resort to legal fictions and lies about the facts of a case in order to be able to deliver humane judgements, his new ‘Japan-compatible’ approach expected the judiciary to develop flexible case law, which would enable judges to achieve ‘concretely appropriate’ judgements. In this context the judiciary was no longer to assume litigants as rationally acting, self-concerned individuals in general, but to admit the possibility of irrational, altruistic etc. personalities and to adjust the application of law to these individual differences. This raises however concerns regarding the principle of equality before the law and the role of a democratically legitimated legislator.

Kompetenzorientierte Rechtsgeschichtsdidaktik (Jan Matthias Hoffrogge) (DOI 10.1515/zrgg-2022-0014)


Competencies and the Didactics of Legal History. Intended as an exploration, the article proves first by means of a textbook analysis that previous, rather scattered didactic considerations of legal history can be connected to models and categories of history didactics. Second, it makes a proposal to systematise learning goals in the field of legal history at the level of competencies. Third, it points out possibilities for improvement, research gaps, and questions that arise from the special perspective of history didactics.

 Book reviews.

Read the journal here.



BOOK: Emanuele FELICE, La conquista dei diritti. Un'idea della storia (Bologna: Il Mulino, 2022). ISBN: 8815294945, pp. 368, € 18.00

(Source: lu)


Possiamo realizzare una storia migliore e tracciare la rotta di una nuova ragione politica È possibile trovare un senso nella storia umana? Secondo Emanuele Felice il significato della storia è rintracciabile nella progressiva estensione dei diritti dell'uomo. A partire dal Settecento, gradualmente, questi si sono ampliati dalle tradizionali libertà civili e politiche ai diritti sociali e ai nuovi diritti ambientali. E del pari si sono ampliati i doveri. Non è stato un percorso lineare, ma un processo reso possibile dall'incontro - nel corso del Novecento - di liberalismo e socialismo nella cornice dello Stato democratico; in modo analogo oggi, nel mondo globalizzato, entrambi devono incontrarsi con l'ambientalismo. L'esito non è scontato, ma rileggendo la storia umana da questa prospettiva appare chiaro che liberalismo, socialismo e ambientalismo, per affrontare le sfide che abbiamo davanti, possono e devono completarsi a vicenda.

29 August 2022

ONLINE SEMINAR: on Martti Koskenniemi's book "To the Uttermost Parts of the Earth: Legal Imagination and International Power, 1300-1870" (CUP, 2021) - 6 September 2022 - organised by the Journal of the History of International Law (on ZOOM)


On 6 September 2022, the Journal of the History of International Law is organising an online evening symposium (CET 20.00h-22.00) to celebrate the publication of Martti Koskenniemi's book 'To the Uttermost Parts of the Earth: Legal Imagination and International Power, 1300-1870 (Cambridge University Press, 2021). The event will take place on Zoom.

This is the program:

Chair: Dr. Inge Van Hulle (Max Planck Institute for Legal History and Legal Theory)

20.00h: Welcome by Prof. Randall Lesaffer (KU Leuven/Tilburg University) 

20.05h: Presentation of book by Prof. Martti Koskenniemi (University of Helsinki)

20.30h: Comments by Prof. Koen Stapelbroek (James Cook University): 'Commerce, capitalism and the law of nations'

20.45h: Comments by Prof. Jennifer Pitts (University of Chicago): 'The struggle between statehood and civil society'

21.00h: Comments by Prof. Wim Decock (UCLouvain): 'Theology and the justification of sovereignty and property'

21.15h: Response by Prof. Martti Koskenniemi

21.30h: Open discussion and questions

Please register by sending an email to:

SYMPOSIUM: The Public and the Private in Early Modern Contexts: Comparative Perspectives - 1-2 September 2022, Centre for Privacy Studies, University of Copenhagen

JOURNAL: Storia Metodo Cultura nella scienza giuridica - seconda e rinnovata serie di Diritto romano attuale - 1/2022 (Napoli: Edizioni Scientifiche Italiane, 2022). 80,00 €

(Source: ESI)

Condiretta da Augusto Chizzini, Tommaso dalla Massara, Mauro Grondona, Luca Loschiavo e Vito Velluzzi la Rivista internazionale Storia Metodo Cultura nella Scienza giuridica intende recuperare quella dimensione unitaria e interdisciplinare che la nostra cultura giuridica sembra aver smarrito. Più esattamente, la dimensione del diritto privato e del processo civile, tanto nelle origini che sono nel diritto romano, quanto nella sua storia medievale e moderna, non meno che per i suoi profili teorici: questo il perimetro tematico da cui intende partire; senza però precludere di alzare lo sguardo, esplorando gli sviluppi in altri àmbiti del diritto.

I tratti di questa tradizione giuridica europea possono cogliersi soltanto nel confronto costante e attento con le altre culture, nella dialettica tra ciò che le accomuna e quel che le differenzia, nell’esperienza vissuta e sempre al di là della superficie del ius scriptum. L’ambizione è quella di guardare alla storia senza arroganza e senza timori, nella consapevolezza che, se il passato è naturale interlocutore del presente, lo stesso passato sarà interrogato a partire dalle esigenze del presente, in modo che assuma progressivamente contorni differenti o addirittura inediti.

More information with the publisher.

BOOK: Antonella MENICONI & Guido NEPPI MODONA (Eds.), L' epurazione mancata. La magistratura tra fascismo e Repubblica (Bologna: Il Mulino, 2022). ISBN: 978-88-15-29852-2, pp. 344, 32,00 €


(Source: Il Mulino)


Tra la fine del fascismo e l'inizio della Repubblica molti magistrati furono sottoposti al giudizio delle Commissioni di epurazione antifascista per valutare se fossero adeguati a servire le nuove istituzioni democratiche. In primo piano i giudici maggiormente compromessi con il regime, posti a capo dell'ordine giudiziario, nel Tribunale speciale per la difesa dello Stato o nel Tribunale della razza, ovvero nella Repubblica sociale italiana. Gli stessi magistrati, passati per lo più indenni dai farraginosi meccanismi epurativi, si ritrovano dopo poco tempo ai vertici della Corte di cassazione, delle Corti d'appello, o con importanti incarichi ministeriali, o addirittura nella Corte costituzionale, avendo di fatto stilato un vantaggioso compromesso con i nuovi governanti. Un affresco ricco di particolari, da cui emerge come i conti con il passato fascista non furono mai veramente compiuti nella Repubblica, che partì gravata da una pesante eredità autoritaria, destinata a produrre i suoi effetti sino agli anni Sessanta. 


Introduzione, di Antonella Meniconi, Guido Neppi Modona

I. I magistrati italiani tra fascismo e Repubblica. Brevi considerazioni su un’epurazione necessaria ma impossibile, di Pietro Saraceno

II. Una presenza scomoda: i magistrati del Tribunale speciale nella transizione alla democrazia, di Leonardo Pompeo D’Alessandro

III. «Le mani nella pasta, gli occhi al cielo» e la coscienza sporca: la magistratura e le leggi antiebraiche tra fascismo e Repubblica, di Saverio Gentile

IV. Giudici della Rsi nella guerra civile. Tra «scandalosi salvataggi» e «ingiuste persecuzioni», di Toni Rovatti

V. Foto di gruppo in movimento: la Corte di cassazione, l’epurazione e la Repubblica, di Antonella Meniconi

VI. Dopo la Liberazione: i presidenti delle Corti di assise straordinarie di Torino e la continuità dei vertici della magistratura, di Guido Neppi Modona

VII. L’Associazione nazionale magistrati nel secondo dopoguerra. Profili e protagonisti (1943-1952), di Francesco Campobello

VIII. Il contributo delle fonti dell’Archivio centrale dello Stato per la storia dell’epurazione, di Caterina Arfè

Indice dei nomi

More information with the publisher.

26 August 2022

BOOK: Enno MENSCHING, Luftkrieg und Recht. Zur historischen Rolle des Humanitären Völkerrechts in der Einhegung der Luftkriegsführung [Studien zur Geschichte des Völkerrechts; 41] (Baden-Baden: Nomos Verlag, 2022), ISBN 9783748928904


(image source: Nomos)


This book is the first comprehensive historical reconstruction of the law of air warfare. The historical analysis of norms and discourse reveals the subordinate role that international humanitarian law has played in the containment of air warfare. In a historical-chronological manner, Enno Mensching traces the theoretical development and practical observance of the legal norms relevant to air warfare to the beginnings of aviation. Special attention is paid to the critical reappraisal of the discourse on international law and the identification of the discursive legitimation strategies that are reproduced to this day to enforce military interests at the expense of humanitarian protection.

Read more with the publisher

JOURNAL: Zeitschrift der Savigny-Stiftung für Rechtsgeschichte: Romanistische Abteilung vol. CXXXIX (2022), no. 1


(image source: De Gruyter)

I. Eine μίσθωσις eines Palmengartens aus Philadelphia (P.Freib. 76) (Wolfgang Kaiser) (DOI 10.1515/zrgr-2022-0001)


The article ­edits, translates and comments a previously unreleased μίσθωσις of the year 226 AD about the date harvest of a palm grove in Philadelphia in Arsinoites (= P.Freib. 76). An offer in the form of a hypomnema forms the basis of the μίσθωσις. The owner of the property is an imperial priest and νεωκόρος of the great Sarapis, who is represented on the ground by a φροντιστής. Apart from boilerplate clauses the offer shows some special features. Except for the φόρος the five μισθωταί also pay another sum of money to the owner for the custody and the fertilization of the date palms. In appendix I it is discussed if further versions of the contract can be assumed, appendix II tries to do a partial reconstruction of P.Tebt. I 158 and appendix III discusses the problem of an ­adequate legal terminology to describe a μίσθωσις.

II. Bemerkungen zur celsinischen Definition der actio (Cels. 3 dig. D. 44,7,51) (Anna Novitskaya) (DOI 10.1515/zrgr-2022-0002)


Roman jurist Publius Juventus Celsus defines the actio as a right to pursue by judicial process that which is owed to one (Cels 3 dig. D. 44,7,51). This definition shaped modern terms in the European legal tradition such as an action in law, a subjective right, a civil procedure, a law suit etc. The article shows how the definition of Celsus was (mis)understood and (re)interpreted during the history of reception of Roman law. The primary focus will lie on the reinterpretation of the Celsus-Definition in the 19th century in the context of German pandectistic tradition. It will be shown, how the definition of Celsus formed modern axiomatic concepts of the German legal terminology und how it lost some of its relevance after the methodological shifts in Roman law scholarship in the 20th century.

III. Die testamentarischen Bestimmungen der tabula cerata von Trawsfynydd (AE 2004, 852) (Lisa Isola) (DOI 10.1515/zrgr-2022-0003)


Roman wills were usually written on waxed tablets due to the sealing regulations of the SC Nero­nianum and the associated enforceability of an assignment to the estate. Such wills were probably made by thousands of Roman citizens. Surprisingly, only one will of this type has survived in its almost complete form. Apart from a very small number of further fragments known from Egypt, a tablet from Wales was edited nearly twenty years ago, but has received little attention in the literature on Roman law and ancient legal history. The following article is dedicated to this tabula cerata from Trawsfynydd.

IV. Aequum putavit imperator. Imperial representation and juristic self-fashioning in the Decreta and Imperiales Sententiae of Julius Paulus (Elsemieke Daalder) (DOI 10.1515/zrgr-2022-0004)


This article discusses the content, context and publication of two collections of imperial judgments compiled by the Roman jurist Paul, the Decretorum libri tres and the Imperialium sententiarum in cognitionibus prolatarum libri sex. Based on a legal and contextual analysis of the 37 cases surviving in Justinian’s Digest, it is argued that these works served a political purpose and should mainly be regarded as a contribution to the imperial rhetoric and propaganda of its protagonist, the emperor Septimius Severus (193–211 CE). At the same time, the texts from these works also reveal Paul’s own desire to present himself as a skilled, knowledgeable and influential jurist.


V. The priority of acquisition secured creditors in classical Roman law (Vincent van Hoof) (DOI 10.1515/zrgr-2022-0005)


Sources on the (privileged) position of a secured creditor who has financed the acquisition of an asset are scarce. A comprehensive set of rules on the obtaining and enforcement of this type of security is absent. Dernburg has suggested that an element of pure chance was involved in whether or not an acquisition secured creditor had a privileged right of pledge. In this article, the author investigates the circumstances under which the acquisition secured creditor had priority over earlier secured creditors. The priority depended to a great extent on what parties had agreed upon in the contract and from which source the seller was paid. Several texts show how the acquisition secured creditor could protect his interests, for example, by paying the purchase price directly to the seller. It remains unclear, however, how priority competitions between an acquisition secured creditor and other privileged pledges were resolved, as there is no contemporary scholarly consensus on the interpretation of key texts.

 VI. Die longi temporis praescriptio in der diokletianischen Reskriptenpraxis (Jan Dirk Harke) (DOI 10.1515/zrgr-2022-0006)


The longi temporis praescriptio in Diocletian’s rescripts. The concept of longi temporis praescriptio, as it appears from the sources, is essentially the work of the lawyers in Diocletian’s chancellery. Taking a comprehensive approach that also extends to usucapio, they establish two firmly defined prerequisites: titulus as the objective element, that is given a technical denomination for the first time, and bona fides, understood as the good faith of the possessor. The praescriptio is thus transformed into an institute of substantive law, which not only corresponds to the replacement of formulary by cognition procedure, but is also in line with the already existing relation to the person of the owner. In this way, Diocletian’s jurists develop the available legal material in a thoroughly innovative manner.

VII. A Slave or a generous benefactor? Legal analysis of 8th-century donations of boys from the Monastery of St. Phoibammon in the Western Thebes (DOI 10.1515/zrgr-2022-0007)


This article discusses the Coptic donations of children from the monastery of St. Phoibammon in Western Thebes. These documents, unparalleled elsewhere, attest the donations of free boys made by their parents to the local monastery. In the first part of this article, previous scholarship on the donations is reviewed. In the second part, the various ways in which parents could surrender their children both in legal practice and statutory law are compared to the donations of boys. Finally, the third part offers a comprehensive analysis of these donations within a wider social and legal context.

VIII. Ius quod necessitas constituit, Senatusconsultum est. Jacques Cujas und die Grundlage der normativen Befugnis des römischen Senates (Salvatore Marino)  (DOI 10.1515/zrgr-2022-0008)


Ius quod necessitas constituit, Senatusconsultum est. Jacques Cujas and the foundation of the normative power of the Roman Senate. Jacqes Cujas identifies in his Paratitla, in his Observationes and extensively in the texts of his posthumously collected lectures, necessity to be the source and foundation of the normative power of the Roman Senate. In doing so, he revisited, rectified and refined the achievements of the medieval jurists, he connected literary and legal sources with philological precision and historical awareness, and achieved results, which are also particularly useful to the contemporary historiographical and historical legal reflection. This study attempts to render all these aspects, on the basis of the numerous testimonies in the Opera omnia, showing the context and the implications.

Legum Multitudo: Diskussionen und Perspektiven aus Anlass einer Übersetzung1) (Dario Mantovani) (DOI 10.1515/zrgr-2022-0009)


Legum Multitudo. Discussions and Perspectives on the Occasion of a Translation. On the occasion of the Spanish translation of his study on the leges publicae in Roman private law, the author clarifies some of his own statements which were subsequently misunderstood and criticized, before commenting on parallel developments in this field of research over the last ­decade, especially on the revaluation of the leges regiae. The new results confirm the importance which the Romans attached to the lex; the role played by other forms of written sources of law also emerges, that taken together with the activity of jurists leads to a more complex and realistic picture of the Roman legal system – without diminishing the importance of jurisprudence.

 D. 19,1,23 Iulianus libro 13 digestorum (Wolfgang Ernst) (DOI 10.1515/zrgr-2022-0010)


D. 19,1,23 Iulianus libro 13 digestorum. Read as a contribution to the classical doctrine of id quod interest, D. 19,1,23 Iul. 13 dig. has often puzzled the reader. Julian seems to overcompensate a buyer for no good reason, only to be brusquely corrected by Marcellus. There may be a non-trivial explanation for Julian’s reasoning, especially once the palingenetical context is taken into account.

Zur Verfasserschaft des Edictum Theoderici (Rainer Jakobi) (DOI 10.1515/zrgr-2022-0011)


The readings of the only witness of the Edictum Theoderici, Pithou’s 1579 editio princeps, have often been misreported by modern editors. Unnecessary conjectures and editorial errors have sometimes even eliminated those true readings which give information about the disputed origin and authorship of the Edictum: At least, one law certainly shows the individual hand of Cassiodorus. Further errors in modern editions are corrected in the paper’s appendix.

Römisches Recht und kirchliches Recht. Rechtspluralismus und Multinormativität im merowingischen Frankenreich (Sebastian Scholz) (DOI 10.1515/zrgr-2022-0012)


This article shows how Roman law and ecclesiastical law combined and could lead to a generation of norms that were not normative but practical. The focus lies on the question of how the coexistence or intermixture of Roman and ecclesiastical law played out. What do we know about the processes of norm generation that were conditioned by legal pluralism in the early Middle Ages? Is it sufficient to label these phenomena with the term ‘legal pluralism’, or is the term ‘multinormativity’ more appropriate? This study focuses on the normative enactments on child abandonment in Roman and ecclesiastical law and their adoption in the legal practice of the formulae. In addition, the provision of the 18th canon of the Synod of Mâcon (581/583) on perjury and its connection to Roman law, as well as the inheritance provision of the 12th formula of the second book of the Formulae Marculfi are discussed.

 Angebote in Form von Hypomnemata und Vertragsschlussbei der μίσθωσις (Wolfgang Kaiser) (DOI 10.1515/zrgr-2022-0012)


The article examines the various forms of signatures on offers for a μίσθωσις of land with regard to a conclusion of a contract. Reference is made to Peter Herrmann’s thesis (1958), which says that offers in the form of hypomnemata are seen as an empty form from a certain point in time onwards.

Überlegungen zum Vertragsschluss bei einer μίσθωσις über Grundstücke (Wolfgang Kaiser) (DOI 10.1515/zrgr-2022-0013)


The article discusses the question how a μίσθωσις of properties can become binding for the parties according to the greco-egyptian documents. It tries to show that Hans Julius Wolff’s teaching of the „Zweckverfügung“ is not sustainable for the conclusion of a μίσθωσις of properties. Instead of modifying this teaching (Behrend, Herrmann and Kränzlein), which is not indicated by the documents, the μίσθωσις of properties in the greco-egyptian documents can also be seen as a binding contract, and its liability is based on the consensus of the parties.

Book reviews

Read the journal here

CFP: Clio@Themis - n. 27, november 2024 - "Late medieval ius commune: concepts, methods, influences" (deadline 1 December 2022)



  • Wouter Druwé (KU Leuven)
  • Dante Fedele (CNRS-Lille)

In recent decades, research on late medieval ius commune has brought to light unpublished texts, catalogued manuscripts and editions, investigated the production of the juridical book, traced the biography and production of several jurists, explored multiple institutes of private or public law, and offered syntheses on medieval legal science as a whole. However, while important works have long drawn attention to several historical and methodological questions, including that of the definition of ius commune, these questions still continue to challenge us today. Devoting a dossier to some of these issues seems necessary, not only to renew the debate among specialists, but also to show its relevance and importance to the community of historians and legal historians in its broadest sense. Our ambition is to collect studies that contribute to a better historicisation of medieval ius commune (twelfth century – early sixteenth century) and to strengthen a methodological awareness in its study, with the aim of overcoming approaches to this concept that are sometimes too vague and to avoid the ever-present risks of a merely dogmatic legal history.

Research themes

1. The notion of ius commune
2. The links between education, doctrine and practice:
3. The relationship to sources:
4. Influence on the modern era (mid-sixteenth – nineteenth centuries)
5. Varia

Submission of paper proposals by 1 December 2022

​Web link

BOOK: Jorge Alberto Trujillo BRETÓN y Daniel FESSLER (coords.). El rescate de la memoria. Historias de transgresión, marginación y justicia en América Latina, siglos XIX y XX. (Guadalajara: Universidad de Guadalajara, 2021). ISBN: 978-607-571-38 8 - 5. OPEN ACCESS.



 Reforma penitenciaria en tiempos de epidemias. Finanzas e higienismo tras algunas de las primeras construcciones penitenciarias argentinas (1867-1895) Luis González Alvo

Huelgas y motines en las cárceles montevideanas durante las primeras décadas del siglo XX Daniel Fessler

Identidades de tela y papel. La indumentaria de reas y reos en la Penitenciaría de Escobedo de Guadalajara (1867-1912) Beatriz Bastarrica Mora

Dura Lex. El ceremonial de la muerte en la casa colorada Jorge Alberto Trujillo Bretón

En las penumbras del poder: Reflexiones sobre poder discrecional en Lima y Callao, 1890s–1910s Luz E. Huertas Castillo

Policía y cuerpos de seguridad en el Jalisco decimonónico: desarrollo de sus estructuras y objetivos Sebastián Porfirio Herrera Guevara 

“Para que se eduque y sea hombre de bien” Maternidad y cuidados en las cartas solicitud de ingreso a la Escuela de Artes y Oficios de Jalisco, 1866-1910 Verónica González Villalobos

“En el sitio mismo del crimen” El reconocimiento médico en los casos de homicidio en Jalisco, siglo XIX Laura Benítez Barba

Suicidio y sensibilidades en la prensa de la Guadalajara de inicios del siglo XX Miguel Ángel Isais Contreras

¡Esta noche hay buen rock! Juventud, baile y moral sexual (Guadalajara, 1957-1965) David Moreno Gaona

Entre casta, raza y clase: un discurso sobre la negridad en Córdoba, Argentina Marcos Javier Carrizo

¿Elementos indeseables y antisanitarios? Entre la criminalización científico-sanitaria y la persecución policial de la inmigración china durante el desarrollo de la política inmigratoria en Cuba (1902-1935) Dayron Oliva Hernández

“Todo ha terminado…” Fusilamientos y sensacionalismo a través de la revista Vea. Chile, 1945-1955 Marco Antonio León León

Contra os “armazéns do gozo vendido a retalho”: uma história da criminalização das casas de prostituição no Brasil (1890-1915) Raquel Khouri dos Santos Ricardo Sontag

Avaliable at: 

25 August 2022

FELLOWSHIP: Burghley Visiting Fellowship - St John’s College, Cambridge - Applications open (DEADLINE 5September 2022)

 Burghley Visiting Fellowship – Applications open

The Burghley Visiting Fellowship is intended to support and promote research into the lives and activities of William Cecil, Lord Burghley, and Mildred Cecil, Lady Burghley, and the worlds in which they lived. It provides an opportunity for those actively engaged in research in this area to spend up to two terms resident at St John’s College, Cambridge, pursuing archival research and/or completing a project. Fellows will also be welcome to spend time working in the Archives at Hatfield House.

Applicants should make a case for the significance and relevance of their research. They should outline the project to be carried out whilst in Cambridge and detail their plans for publication and further dissemination of their findings through scholarship and education.

This is a non-stipendary fellowship. The Burghley Visiting Fellow will be provided with accommodation and meals in College and an additional allowance to cover travel and books. They will be expected to remain in residence in Cambridge and to actively participate in college life for the duration of the Fellowship.

Applications will be considered from staff of any university or other institution of higher learning, and from other suitably qualified persons who wish to carry out scholarly work in Cambridge. We welcome Fellowship applications from both UK and overseas candidates. The Fellowship is not intended to support those completing PhD theses but early career scholars are encouraged to apply.

It is proposed that the next Fellow will take up residence in January 2023; applicants should confirm that this is possible for them and whether they wish to spend one or two terms in Cambridge. Arrangements are subject to alteration depending on the accommodation available at the College and any changes to international travel.

The deadline for applications is Monday 5 September 2022. Applicants should send a 1000 word outline of their proposed project and publication plans, along with a short cv (no more than two pages) and the names of two referees, to Janet Dickinson at Please get in touch at this email address if you have any queries.

JOURNAL: Zeitschrift der Savigny-Stiftung für Rechtsgeschichte: Kanonistische Abteilung CVIII (2022), nr. 1


(image source: DeGruyter)

I. Kaiser Friedrich II. und sein Versuch,die Kardinäle gegen den Papst auszuspielen Eine strategische Fehleinschätzung oder eine geschickte Option,um Handlungsspielraum für sich zurückzugewinnen? (Ansgar Frenken) (DOI 10.1515/zrgk-2022-0001)
In Reaktion auf die (zweiten) Bannung und der von ihm erwarteten Absetzung durch Papst Gregor IX. versuchte Kaiser Friedrich II. die Stellung der Kardinäle unter Rückgriff auf kontrovers diskutierte Bestimmungen des kanonischen Rechts propagandistisch aufzuwerten. Möglicherweise erhoffte er sich durch die Betonung ihrer Teilnahme an der plenitudo potestatis des Papstes einen mäßigenden Einfluss auf Gregor, vielleicht auch durch sie die Einberufung eines eigentlich dem Papst vorbehaltenen allgemeinen Konzils. Warum es dem Kaiser letztlich jedoch nicht gelang, die Mehrheit der Kardinäle zu einer Gegenposition zum Papst zu bewegen, soll in dieser Studie untersucht werden.

II. Texts, Law, and Church Reform: The Anti-Simoniac Dossier of BM Reims Ms. 15 and the Collectio Sinemuriensis (John S. OTT) (DOI 10.1515/zrgk-2022-0002)


This paper explores a little-known florilegium of 36 canons found in Reims, Bibliothèque municipale Ms. 15. The canons form one part of a dossier against simoniac prelates, assembled in 1078–1079 by reform-minded clergy in Reims to bring down the archbishop, Manasses I ( ca . 1069–1080). Taken nearly whole-cloth from the Tuscan Collectio Barberiniana, the canons of Reims 15 shed light on the transmission of legal material from northern Italy to northern France, and offer precious insight into how this material was assembled for use. Moreover, substantial elements of the florilegium were incorporated into the eleventh-century legal collection known as Sinemuriensis. Using the canonical material of Reims 15, this paper offers a new hypothesis concerning the various recensions of Sinemuriensis and their dating, and concludes with an edition of the canons from the Reims florilegium .

III. The Collectio Britannica and its Sources: Reviewing the Trustworthiness of a Key Witness of Medieval Papal Letters (Christof Rolker) (DOI 10.1515/zrgk-2022-0003)


The Collectio Britannica, compiled in the late 11th century and preserved in only one manuscript (London, BL, Add MS 8873), contains numerous excerpts from papal letters dating from the fifth to the eleventh centuries, including many that are not known from other sources. For a long time it was considered a reliable source, but between the 1940s and 1980s some scholars expressed doubts about the authenticity of various letters found in the Britannica, and even in more recent research the collection is still viewed with suspicion. However, a re-examination of the relevant studies shows that many arguments against the authenticity of the papal letters as found in the Britannica were speculative at best. Most ‘suspicious’ elements are in fact found only in the extant London copy of the Britannica, not in the version used in the 1090s by Ivo of Chartres and his collaborators. Only in very few cases is there reason to believe that the sections of the Britannica in question contain extracts from forged or falsified papal letters. With the exception of the section on Leo IV, the relevant parts of the Britannica can usually be relied upon to faithfully retain the content, wording, cursus, and even the order of the papal registers on which they are ultimately based.

IV. Wahrheit oder Wahrscheinlichkeit als Urteilsgrundlage? Die Entstehung der freien richterlichen Beweiswürdigung (Matthias Schmoeckel) (DOI 10.1515/zrgk-2022-0004)


Wie entstanden die richterliche Beweiswürdigung und der Verzicht auf Wahrheit bei der richterlichen Urteilsfindung? Vermutungen rechtfertigten im römisch-kanonischen Beweisrecht meist kein Urteil. Im konfessionellen Zeitalter entstanden Theorien des Probabilismus, wonach Menschen allenfalls Wahrscheinlichkeiten erkennen konnten. Mathematiker bewiesen anhand von juristischen Schulfällen des 13. Jahrhunderts den substantiellen Unterschied zwischen Verdacht und nahezu sicherem Wissen. Der britische Sensualismus ließ im Jury-Mitglied den unvoreingenommenen Richter erkennen, wogegen der Berufsrichter nur durch Vorurteile geprägt sein könne. Die freie Beweiswürdigung wurde daher zum Ideal im Zuge der Französischen Revolution.

Heinrich Hahn (1605–1668). A Portrait of a Lutheran Jurist at the University of Helmstedt (Paolo Astorri & Søren Frank Jensen) (DOI 10.1515/zrgk-2022-0005)


This article provides a first sketch of the scholarly and confessional identity of the Helmstedt law professor, Heinrich Hahn (1605–1668). It analyses Hahn’s most important work, a commentary on the Paratitla by Matthaeus Wesenbeck (1531–1586), and a funeral sermon delivered by Balthasar Cellarius (1614–1689) at Hahn’s funeral. By exploring what Hahn’s work reveals about his religious convictions alongside Cellarius’ portrait of him, the article presents a paradigmatic model of the interaction between law and religion in the early modern period. In his commentary, Hahn employs Scholastic moral theology, both at the level of general principles and in the resolution of legal problems. However, when it comes to decisive doctrinal points, Hahn turns away from Catholic sources. In the sermon, Cellarius presents Hahn as an ideal law professor whose faith was the foundation of his professional ethos as well as his private life. Throughout the sermon, he questions whether jurists can be good Christians and negotiates the relationship between faith and works.

Pfarrliche Vermögensorganisation zwischen Kirche und Staat: Kirchenpflegen (Kirchenfabriken) in Württemberg im 19. und beginnenden 20. Jahrhundert (Stephan Dusil) (DOI 10.1515/zrgk-2022-0006)


The Administration of Ecclesiastical Goods between State and Church: Fabricae Ecclesiae in Wuerttemberg in the 19th and 20th centuries. Since the Middle Ages, fabricae ­ecclesiae served to finance the erection and the maintenance of churches. The Church claimed to freely administer these goods, even if lay men often served as administrators. In the 19th century, the Kingdom of Wuerttemberg took over control of these goods and ordered the state municipality, assisted by local clerics, to govern them. In 1887, the king of Wuerttemberg started a process to separate ecclesiastical from secular goods. After WWI, the fabricae ecclesiae in Wuerttemberg were administered entirely by the Catholic Church. This contribution analyses this evolution from three perspectives, namely universal canon law, state law in Wuerttemberg, and particular canon law. It thereby highlights the tension between self-administration and state control of ecclesiastical goods, especially in the 19th century, and points to the fact that even the Catholic Church was part of the secular ruler’s authority over the church.

From Property to Propriety: probing Priesthood in the Carolingian era* (Abigail Firey) (DOI 10.1515/zrgk-2022-0007)


Steffen Patzold's recent book on priests in the Carolingian era invites reflection about methods in legal history, interwoven lay and clerical participation in religious activity, the meaning of ecclesial reform, and the application of new scholarship to materials previously framed with early twentieth-century analysis.

Freie Kirche im freien Staat. Die Entstehung des österreichischen Protestantengesetzes (1961) zu seinem 60-Jahr-Jubiläum1) (Karl W. Schwarz) (DOI 10.1515/zrgk-2022-0008)


 “The free church in the free state” is a quotation from the Italian politician Cavour that the Austrian Minister of Culture Drimmel took up when he ushered in a new era of Austrian religious policy in 1954. The situation was complicated because the validity of the Concordat with Rome of 1934 was disputed. It was not until the State Treaty of 1955 that its continued validity under international law was confirmed; its domestic enactment by a rump parliament in 1935 (without Social Democratic deputies) was challenged by the Socialist coalition partner. It was not until 1957 that a solution to the concordat issue could be tackled. This was done by renegotiating partial concordats. At the same time, the Protestant Law was drafted, of which the aforementioned minister could say that it realized best his ideas on religious law. He regretted that it could not be implemented in the form of a church treaty. Constitutional concerns stood in the way because the Protestant Church does not have subjectivity under international law. The article discusses the prehistory of the Protestant Law and analyzes individual provisions of it.

Book reviews.

Read the journal here


JOURNAL: Jus Politicum, nº 27. Formes de la citoyenneté


Formes de la citoyenneté




24 August 2022

ARTICLE: Michael C. BEHRENT, "A Foucauldian Defense of the State: Blandine Kriegel and the État de Droit" (Modern Intellectual History, First View)


(image source: Cambridge Core)


This paper examines the career and thought of French political philosopher Blandine Kriegel (b. 1943) from the standpoint of the most striking paradox they present: though she was a student of Michel Foucault, who was famous for his critique of central role that political thinking has traditionally accorded the state, Kriegel has, since the mid-1970s, been one of the foremost champions of the concept of état de droit—the state as the embodiment of the “rule of law”—in French political debates. At a time when post-1968 critics of Marxism and totalitarianism (notably the so-called nouveaux philosophes) were arguing that states were inherently despotic, Kriegel mounted an original defense of the state, which, she argued, had played a central role in establishing legal rights that freed individuals from the “slavery” of civil society. She was able to do this, in part, by drawing on several suggestive elements found in Foucault's work: his concept of biopolitics, the claim that individuals and subjectivity are constituted through power relations, and the insight that war and sovereignty represent alternative ways of conceptualizing power. In this way, she used aspects of Foucault's political thought to arrive at a decidedly non-Foucauldian appreciation of the modern state.

Read more here: DOI  10.1017/S1479244321000615.