Search

03 February 2023

CALL FOR PAPERS: Journées internationales de la Société d'Histoire du Droit (LAUSANNE, 1-4 JUNE 2023); DEADLINE 31 MARCH 2023



We learned that the annual international conference "Journées internationales de la Société d'Histoire du Droit" will take place in Lausanne in early June.


***


« LANGUES ET PAROLES DU DROIT »

Journées internationales d’histoire du droit de Lausanne en 2023


La Faculté de droit, des sciences criminelles et d’administration publique de l’Université de Lausanne, ses autorités, Denis Tappy, Professeur ordinaire en histoire du droit, Anne Peroz, Maître d’enseignement et de recherche, et les assistants de la chaire d’histoire du droit accueilleront les prochaines Journées internationales de la Société d’histoire du droit du 1er au 4 juin 2023 à Lausanne (Suisse). Le thème en sera « Langues et paroles du droit ».

Nous espérons susciter des contributions touchant des facettes variées de ce thème et un large éventail de périodes. Les langues du droit, ce sont bien sûr d’abord les idiomes dans lesquels sont exprimés les lois, mais aussi les traités, les contrats, les opérations de procédure, etc. Pourquoi a-t-on parfois longtemps (jusqu’à nos jours pour le latin en droit canon), recouru à langues mortes, ou au contraire imposé de passer à des langues modernes, lesquelles et avec quelles conséquences (pensons par ex. à l’art. 111 de l’ordonnance de Villers-Cotterêts de 1539, qui voulait bannir le latin des actes non académiques, mais a aussi fini par être fatal, en France, à l’usage juridique d’autres langues vernaculaires que le français …) ? Le fréquent découplage entre la pratique et le recours à des langues d’enseignement spécifiques (principalement le latin jusqu’au XVIIIe siècle, mais on pourrait évoquer également les langues issues de la colonisation en Afrique ou désormais l’anglais universitaire) justifierait aussi certaines interrogations.

On s’intéressera aussi au plurilinguisme juridique (très ancien si l’on songe par ex. à la double version hittite et égyptienne du traité de Quadesh au XIIIe siècle av. J. C ou à certaines constitutions du Bas-Empire romain à la fois en latin et en grec), qui est un sujet incontournable dans un pays comme la Suisse. Y a-t-il alors une langue de référence et des versions « inférieures » ? et comment gère-t-on sinon les inévitables divergences, sans parler des solutions intermédiaires récemment développées avec la différence entre langues officielles et langues de travail dans l’Union européenne ? Il arrive également que, dans un texte juridique en une langue donnée, apparaissent des bribes d’une autre, comme les passages grecs du Digeste ou les gloses malbergiques du droit franc (mais aussi les expressions latines qui ponctuent de nos jours encore travaux de doctrine, plaidoiries ou arrêts là où une prohibition expresse n’a pas été édictée).

Les langues du droit invitent aussi à étudier la traduction juridique. Du latin au vernaculaire, bien sûr (comme pour les versions médiévales en français, mais aussi en provençal, voire en catalan, de textes romains ou canoniques ou pour les entreprises plus récentes et controversées d’un Hulot ou d’un Vignali, jusqu’aux traductions contemporaines du Digeste en allemand, anglais, néerlandais, etc.) mais aussi d’une langue vernaculaire à une autre (traduction en néerlandais du Somme rural, en français du Schwabenspiegel, etc.), voire du vernaculaire au latin (des « auto-traductions » de certains humanistes comme Bodin, à la curieuse version latine du Code Napoléon). Par ailleurs, en cas de traduction après coup notamment de textes légaux, sur quelle initiative ou pourquoi interviennent-elles et comment sont-elles mises en œuvre. avec parfois à cet égard certaines contraintes (comme le kata poda prévu par Justinien pour les futures versions grecques du Digeste) ?

A l’intérieur d’une langue donnée, on pourra s’intéresser aussi aux spécificités de l’expression juridique : forte abstraction, recours à des formulations impersonnelles, etc. L’art. 110 de l’ordonnance de Villers-Cotterêts déjà citée, théoriquement toujours en vigueur, prohibe expressément toute ambiguïté dans la rédaction des arrêts. Peut-être certains évoqueront-ils aussi des questions de paratexte (plan, subdivisions en capitula, article ou paragraphes, titres intermédiaires, interpretationes ou notes marginales, préfaces, etc.) des textes de droit. Enfin, on pourrait s’intéresser à des formes versifiées de textes ou de règles juridiques, qui ont longtemps fourni d’efficaces moyens mnémotechniques et ont même débouché sur des tentatives de mises en vers des monuments juridiques comme les Institutes ou le code Napoléon !

Le deuxième membre du thème retenu, les paroles du droit, devrait permettre d’aborder aussi des questions touchant le fond du droit. Quelle portée normative pour les innombrables adages juridiques ciselés par les ans ? A partir d’où et comment ont évolué ces formulations certains évoquent d’ailleurs précisément le langage (Verba ligant homines, taurorum cornua funes affirme un brocard d’origine bolonaise bien connu). Quelles conséquences de droit matériel ou de procédure dépendent-elles par ailleurs de l’utilisation d’expressions précises ?


Gaius évoque à propos des actions de la loi un procès perdu pour avoir parlé de « vignes » au lieu d’« arbres ». Bien qu’un formalisme aussi extrême relève plutôt de droits archaïques, user de formulations traditionnelles et éprouvées (au sens large, le thème permettrait aussi de s’intéresser à certains recueils ou modèles d’actes) n’a nullement disparu des pratiques juridiques actuelles. Et si l’on se réfère de nos jours volontiers à l’esprit plutôt qu’à la lettre d’une loi ou d’un contrat, sommes-nous toujours conscients que l’opposition entre ces deux termes a elle-même une histoire, remontant en tout cas à la deuxième épître aux Corinthiens de Saint Paul ?

Les paroles du droit pourraient conduire en outre à évoquer des distinctions fameuses (comme celle du droit canon classique entre verba de presenti et verba de futuro) et des questions concrètes d’interprétation, qu’elles concernent des traités, des actes privés, contrats ou testaments, ou des formulations légales. La précision des termes est si importante en droit qu’elle a conduit la doctrine, voire la loi à inventer des règles applicables à de tels problèmes (interprétation contra stipulatorem, dispositions légales supplétives sur le sens d’une expression comme les art. 533 du Code Napoléon, etc.).

Enfin, nos journées ont aussi vocation à accueillir des contributions qui s’intéresseraient à la langue comme objet de réglementation : des changements d’expressions légales (passer dans le Code pénal suisse de « celui qui … » à « quiconque … ») ou des règles récentes imposant parfois des formulations épicènes en sont de bons exemples. Le législateur s’est parfois aussi préoccupé de promouvoir une uniformisation linguistique (à travers des prohibitions de dialectes régionaux aujourd’hui en général sévèrement jugées), de défendre une langue contre une autre (comme avec des normes censées lutter contre le « franglais »), de marquer dans la langue des changements politiques (le « citoyen » révolutionnaire), ou de prohiber des termes ou des noms rappelant un régime ou un dirigeant honni (avec déjà à l’époque romaine des règles consécutive à la damnatio memoriae). Savoir si des règles étatiques peuvent prescrire des changements même simplement orthographiques a d’ailleurs suscité récemment de vifs débats. Un Savigny hostile à l’ingérence de l’Etat en matière juridique aurait répondu par la négative et le parallèle entre langue et droit cher à l’Ecole historique pourrait aussi trouver place dans nos discussions …

Avec ces facettes très diverses du thème retenu nous espérons susciter la venue de nombreux auditeurs et conférenciers. Les inscriptions sont ouvertes de fin janvier au 31 mars 2023 dans la rubrique « Inscription » de ce site. En cas de difficulté, n’hésitez pas à prendre contact avec nous à l’adresse électronique shd2023@unil.ch.

Comme dans les journées de ces dernières années, la durée de chaque présentation sera impérativement limitée à 20 minutes. Pour disposer de temps pour la discussion à la suite de chaque intervention et ne pas perturber le bon déroulement des séances, nous prions les intéressés de ne pas outrepasser cette durée. Ils pourront intégrer ce qu’ils n’auront pas eu la possibilité de présenter oralement dans leur communication écrite pour les actes qui seront publiés ultérieurement.

Conformément aux statuts de la Société, les communications devront en principe être faites en français. Cette règle ne saurait toutefois être interprétée trop strictement dans des journées consacrées à la langue, d’autant que la tradition a aussi parfois admis le recours à la ou les langues du pays d’accueil. Nous pourrons dès lors accepter un petit nombre de communications en allemand ou en italien, voire en anglais. Dans ce cas nous souhaiterions alors disposer suffisamment à l’avance d’un document écrit résumant en français la communication en question et qui pourra être distribué à ceux qui assisteront à celle-ci. Au besoin Anne Peroz, moi-même ou nos assistants serons d’ailleurs à disposition pour aider à traduire de tels résumés.

Nous nous réjouissons de vous accueillir sur les rives du lac Léman et espérons que vous serez nombreux à vous inscrire. Dans l’attente du plaisir de vous saluer à Lausanne, nous vous adressons à toutes et tous nos meilleurs messages.

Les organisateurs


More information can be found on the conference website

 

02 February 2023

EXTENDED DEADLINE, CFP : Conference Iustoria 2023 - University of Belgrade, 23-25 March 2023 [NEW DEADLINE 20 FEB 2023]


 


The University of Belgrade Faculty of Law is now receiving paper proposals for the Fourth student conference on legal history – the Iustoria 2023, to be held on March 23rd -25th, 2023, its topic being “Law and Punishment”.

In 2023, it will be 150 years since corporal punishment was abolished in Serbian law, by the 1873 amendments of the Penal (Criminal) Code of 1860. To commemorate this anniversary, we wish to stimulate research related to punishment and sanctions in law. From the earliest legal history of Antiquity, all the way to the Modern Age, a large part of the law is concerned precisely with the sanctions for undesirable behaviour. Theory considers only that legal norm to be complete which prescribes a sanction in case of disobedience. First of all, a large array of subjects related to criminal law is available to our participants – on different types and subtypes of sanctions and manners of their execution, on the punishment for individual crimes and categories of crimes, as well on the purpose of punishment, which has had different aspects throughout the ages: retribution against the perpetrator, his reformation, special or general prevention, compensation for the victim… In various legal systems throughout history, different personal properties of the perpetrator and the victim could influence punishment: gender, age, belonging to a certain estate, class or caste, whether they were free persons or slaves, what their previous relationship used to be… One could also open the subjects of divine punishment, self-help and vendetta (blood feuds), talion and composition, as well as the private or public enforcement and execution of sanctions. Besides these central subjects related to criminal law, we also accept papers concerning other types of punitive norms, such as contractual penalties in the law of obligations, or the use of sanctions in international law.

All students of undergraduate and post-graduate studies pertaining to law or other humanities are eligible to apply for the conference. The applications should contain basic personal information (name and surname, faculty, department, level and year of study), along with an extended abstract containing anywhere between 500 and 1000 words. Applications are accepted in either Serbian or English.

The applications should be e-mailed to iustoria@ius.bg.ac.rs before the 20th of February, 2023. The students will be informed by the 25th of January whether or not their application has been accepted. A provisional programme for the conference will be announced by the 10th of February. For any additional information you may enquire at the same e-mail address, or consult the official Facebook page of the conference – https://www.facebook.com/iustoria

Just like on our previous conferences, apart from the presentations given by their colleagues, the students at the conference will have an opportunity to attend several lectures given by renowned experts – more details on this will be available in the final version of the programme. The conference will be held in hybrid format: both in-person or online participation will be possible. We'll do our best to secure accommodations either in student dorms or with student host families for participants who don’t reside in Belgrade and who wish to participate in person. These arrangements will depend on the number of available spots. The final versions of the papers presented at the conference, with final changes and corrections submitted within a reasonable time after the conference, will be submitted for publication in the journal „Vesnik pravne istorije / Herald of Legal History“ (http://epub.ius.bg.ac.rs/index.php/Vesnik/index).

ARTICLE: Tobias HODEL, "Konsequenzen der Handschriftenerkennung und des maschinellen Lernens für die Geschichtswissenschaft. Anwendung, Einordnung und Methodenkritik" (Historische Zeitschrift CCCXVI (2023) nr. 1, 151-180

 

(image source: DeGruyter)

Abstract:

The ability to read historical manuscripts has been part of the auxiliary scientific method apparatus for centuries; automated handwritten text recognition thus corresponds to a potential facilitation of work that opens up new perspectives for history. In order to assess the technology and its potential, we will explain which factors are crucial for successful recognition and how the results can be further processed. By means of machine or deep learning, however, the method apparatus is also extended by a learning procedure that relies on large amounts of data and adopts valuations from the underlying data, which often leads to undesired side effects. Handwritten text recognition can thus be used to experience and critically evaluate a technology that is currently finding its way into various areas of science and our daily lives.

Read the article here (DOI 10.1515/hzhz-2023-0006).

JOURNAL: Special Issue: The United Nations War Crimes Commission (UNWCC), 1943-1948, and the Codification of International Criminal Law (Journal of the History of International Law/Revue d'histoire du droit international XXIV (2022), No. 3 (August)

 

(image source: Brill)

The United Nations War Crimes Commission (UNWCC), 1943–1948, and the Codification of International Criminal Law: An Introduction to the Special Issue (Sabina Ferhadbegović, Kerstin von Lingen & Julia Eichenberg)
DOI 10.1163/15718050-12340208

Epistemic Communities of Exile Lawyers at the UNWCC (Kerstin von Lingen) (OPEN ACCESS)
DOI 10.1163/15718050-bja10072
Abstract:
During the 1940s in London, exiled lawyers from Europe and Asia were among the main actors in coining one of the most known principles of international criminal law. The notion of ‘crimes against humanity’ emanated from their legal debates. This paper debates how the term surfaced in meetings of the United Nations War Crimes Commission (UNWCC) in 1944 and was taken up by the London Charter for the Nuremberg International Tribunal in 1945. Legal concepts, which previously needed to be discussed at conferences and via correspondence, developed much more quickly in the ‘breeding ground’ of the exile situation in London and were influenced by different legal traditions, here termed ‘legal flows’.

Crossroads in London on the Road to Nuremberg: The London International Assembly, Exile Governments and War Crimes (Julia Eichenberg) (OPEN ACCESS)
DOI 10.1163/15718050-bja10071
Abstract:

During the Second World War, representatives of occupied European countries fled the continent, mostly to Great Britain. From 1940 onwards, exiled political representatives of Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Greece, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Yugoslavia and Free France were situated in London. This initiated debates about a broad range of legal issues, ranging from recognition and legitimacy to post-war justice. Law thus became a focal point in London, both imperative to uphold statehood and legitimacy in exile and an indispensable tool for planning and structuring the post-war world. This article looks at the pre-history of the UNWCC and presents interests and forces behind the creation of such a commission, and the attempts of different groups, states and individuals to maintain agency. This article will introduce discussions around the St James’s Declaration, the London International Assembly (LIA) and at Chatham House as important steps leading towards the UNWCC.

The Absent Player: The Soviet Union and the Genesis of the Allied War Crimes Trials Program, 1941–1943 (Valentyna Polunina)
DOI  10.1163/15718050-bja10079
Abstract:

During World War II, it was important for the Kremlin to be a part of the Allied effort to prosecute war criminals, and initially Moscow planned to join the UNWCC. However, attempts by the Soviet Union to increase its influence on the Commission led to the opposition of the Western Allies. The USSR wanted to demonstrate that they were capable of conducting their own investigations. With this task in mind, Moscow founded their alternative to the UNWCC – the Extraordinary State Commission. This article seeks to address the influence of Soviet legal innovations on the UNWCC – in particular on the Czechoslovak representative Bohuslav Ečer – as well as Moscow’s own attempts to investigate Nazi war crimes.

The United Nations War Crimes Commission and the Prosecution of War Criminals in Yugoslavia (Sabina Ferhadbegović)
DOI 10.1163/15718050-bja10066
Abstract:

To understand the different developments that shaped the Yugoslav war crimes policy it is important to analyse the impact of international discussions on the Yugoslav criminal law and the Yugoslav involvement in the United Nations War Crimes Commission (UNWCC). During the Second World War two different institutions claimed to be the legal representatives of the Yugoslav people: The Yugoslav government in exile in London and the communist led AVNOJ (The Anti-Fascist Council for the National Liberation of Yugoslavia). With this in mind, this paper analyses Yugoslav war crimes policies from different perspectives and in different settings. It shows that the Yugoslav`s discussion about the punishment of war criminals was influenced by power struggles, geopolitical aims, and legitimacy. While Yugoslav government in exile got lost in internal nationalist struggles, it was the Yugoslav representative at the UNWCC, and the communist led State commission to investigate the crimes of the occupiers and their accomplices who took the active role and shaped the Yugoslav war crimes policy. In consequence the Yugoslav national law for prosecuting war crimes was developed from different sources: pre-WWII traditions, Soviet law, and the UNWCC. 

A Lawyer in Exile: Johannes M. de Moor and the Circulation of Legal Knowledge in Wartime London (Sara Weydner)
DOI 10.1163/15718050-bja10067
Abstract:

De Moor’s biography illustrates how people and ideas travelled between and within national and transnational spaces. He played a role in the circulation of legal knowledge in the transnational epistemic community, more precisely between the Cambridge Commission and the London International Assembly. In thinking about the future of the international order and the place of nation states within it, De Moor came to embrace the idea that state sovereignty and the rule of law had to be recalibrated and that, as a logical conclusion, war crimes could be prosecuted internationally. In London, he became an advocate for a universal organization backed by an international court and an international armed force. He envisioned an international rule of law as the underlying system governing the international order.

The Imperial Precipice: Jurists and Diplomats of the French Empire at the United Nations War Crimes Commission (Ann-Sophie Schoepfel)
DOI 10.1163/15718050-bja10070
Abstract:

Delving into world-spanning legal agencies, histories of exiled diplomats and lawyers, this paper explores how Free France defended at the United Nations War Crimes Commission the vision of the interwar liberal order, one that reached across the global territories of the mandate system administered by the League of Nations, into the colonial territories of the French empire. From London to Chongqing, facing Vichy collaborationist authoritarian dictatorship in metropolitan France and anti-colonial pressures from the turbulent colonial frontiers, a handful of Free French jurists and politicians worked day and night to establish the imperial sovereignty of the French exile committee of general Charles de Gaulle, and restore French republicanism rooted in the legal tradition of Nicolas Fouquet, Jacques de Maleville and Léon Duguit. Drawing upon newly-unsealed UN and French archival materials, this paper documents Free France’s intervention at the UNWCC, the activities of its representatives and reflection on empires, race and international law.

Australian Representatives to the UNWCC, 1943–1948 (Narrelle Morris)
DOI 10.1163/15718050-12340204
Abstract:

Australia had a number of significant personnel involved in the United Nations War Crimes Commission (UNWCC). Yet the strongest Australian influence on the UNWCC was not Australian at all; it was the British-born jurist Lord Wright of Durley, who served as Australia’s representative from mid-1944 and as UNWCC chair during the pivotal years from 1945 to 1948. Lord Wright took charge only months before the wars in Europe and the Pacific ended and thus played a significant role in directing the UNWCC’s efforts during this crucial period. Unfortunately, the UNWCC became less and less able over time to influence its national members and their approaches to prosecuting war crimes. The eventual sidelining of the UNWCC does not, however, change its important place in the history of multilateral institutions that sought to deal with war crimes committed in the twentieth century by means of international criminal law. Nor does it detract from the honest and industrious work of the various national representatives, including Lord Wright, to ensure that war criminals did not escape justice. 

Book reviews:

  •  Revolutions in International Law. The Legacies of 1917 , edited by Katryn Greenman, Anne Orford, Anna Sounders and Ntina Tzouvala (by Raluca Grosescu)
  • International Organization as Technocratic Utopia , written by Jens Steffek (Negar Mansouri)
  • Contingency in International Law: On the Possibility of Different Legal Histories , edited by Ingo Venzke and Kevin Jon Heller (by Ville Kari)
Read more on Brill's website.

CFP SYMPOSIUM: ‘Celebrating Women in Legal History: The Lives and Legacies of Early Women Legal Historians’ - The University of Liverpool School of Law and Social Justice, 1 September 2023 [DEADLINE 21 APR 2023].

 


Selden’s Sister invites abstracts for the Symposium

‘Celebrating Women in Legal History: The Lives and Legacies of Early Women Legal

Historians’

The University of Liverpool School of Law and Social Justice

1st September 2023.


This one-day hybrid symposium aims to celebrate the contributions of women to early legal historical scholarship, to commemorate the achievements of under-appreciated figures in legal history, and to assess their contributions in light of present understandings of the discipline. We particularly encourage papers that engage with the work of nineteenth and twentieth-century researchers.

Papers might consider (but are not restricted to):

 The work of particular women, or groups of women, whose research significantly impacted legal, constitutional, or administrative history.

 Current research projects that make extensive use of the work of one or multiple early women legal historians.

 Biographical accounts of women who undertook legal historical research in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

 Historiographical accounts of areas of legal history that have been significantly developed by women scholars.

 Accounts of other contributions made by women to early legal historical scholarship, for example as patrons, librarians, editors, or typists.

 Fictional or artistic accounts of women in legal history

Abstracts are welcomed from scholars of all genders, disciplines, and career stages. Delegates will be able to present their papers in-person or online. There is a limited amount of funding for travel within the UK and accommodation expenses, priority for which will be given to postgraduate and early-career scholars.

Please submit any queries and abstracts of no more than 300 words to seldenssister@gmail.com by Friday 21 st April 2023.

Selden’s Sister are a collaborative body of legal historians across multiple UKHE institutions. We seek to champion the work of contemporary female legal historians, and highlight past contributions to legal history.

01 February 2023

JOURNAL: Tijdschrift voor Rechtsgeschiedenis/Revue d'histoire du droit/The Legal History Review LXXXXIX (2022), nr. 3-4

 

(image source: Brill)

Olav Moorman van Kappen † (De Redactie/La rédaction/The Editors)
DOI 10.1163/15718190-20220032

Uitreking Prijs Robert Feenstra 2017-2019
DOI 10.1163/15718190-20220033

Articles

The politics of the lex Aquilia Reparation disputes in the battle of the orders: the quest for fair trials (Wolfgang Ernst) [OPEN ACCESS]
DOI 10.1163/15718190-20220018
Abstract:

Centuries of interpretation by sophisticated Roman jurists developed a comprehensive and nuanced law of damage to personal property, based on the republican lex Aquilia. This lex originated from a plebiscite and the plebeians must have pursued a comprehensible political purpose. That purpose is to be found in the ‘access to justice’ problem inherent in the legis actio per sacramentum procedure, which hindered cash-poor plebeians from engaging in adversarial trials. This grievance became pressing in the aftermath of the last secessio plebis (ca. 287 BCE) when vast amounts of property damage and destruction awaited judicial redress. For the most heinous deeds, the killing of slaves and cattle, a manus iniectio procedure was instituted that incentivised uncontested payment of reparations based on a confessio in iure. In the context of this reform, other elements of the lex Aquilia can be reconsidered, inter alia the reliance on a price from the preceding year and the mysterious Chapter II.

Le manomissioni del ius civile e il momento acquisitivo della cittadinanza romana (Lorenzo Gagliardi)
DOI 10.1163/15718190-20220023
Abstract:

A comparison is made among the three manumissions of the ius civile and it is investigated what was the moment in which the freedmen acquired Roman citizenship and could begin to exercise political rights. It is concluded that the manumissi censu acquired all political rights immediately after the manumission. The manumissi vindicta and testamento, on the other hand, acquired citizenship at the time of manumission, but had to wait for the census both to be admitted to the centuriate assembly and to be registered in the tribes (and therefore to receive the right to vote in the tribal assemblies).

Akteure im Hintergrund Die Rolle der Faktoren in kaufmännischen Netzwerken und die Genese ihres rechtlichen Handlungsspielraums (Heiliges Römisches Reich Deutscher Nation und Deutsches Reich) (Anja Amend-Traut)
DOI  10.1163/15718190-20220016
Abstract:

Already since the emergence of supra-national trade, merchants and trading companies have made use of so-called Faktoren (factors) to establish and expand their business networks. The increasing differentiation of the factor activity was first taken into account by the case law and commercial expert opinions, so-called pareres, which were subsequently received and finally led to the commercial codifications by constituting their own legal figures for dependent and independent action, in particular the assistants, the power of attorney and the commission. As part of this consolidation process, the special need for protection of trade and its trust in the persons appointed by the principal, who bore the risk of having used third parties for his interests, was implemented. Long before this risk distribution led to the ALR and subsequent trade laws, this fundamental trading ethos was established and further developed by merchants and lawyers alike. Only this further training and transfer to new constellations and legal figures formed the basis for the distinction between a commercial and civil law obligation of the represented person for his representative.

Jacob Coren’s Observatio 40: shipowner liability for inculpable ship collision and its limitation in Roman-Dutch law (Tim Lubbers)
DOI  10.1163/15718190-20220026
Abstract:

In 1617, two Dutch merchantmen collided in a storm on the North Sea. The incident resulted in extensive legal proceedings before the Supreme Court of Holland, Zeeland and West-Friesland, lasting until 1640. In an unprecedented decision, which was published as no. 40 of Jacob Coren’s well-known Observationes, the Court limited the liability of shipowners for inculpable ship collision to the value of their ship. Based both on extensive archival research and the text of Coren’s Observatio, the present article offers a detailed discussion of the facts and proceedings of the case, and sets out how the case was received by Roman-Dutch scholars. As it turns out, limitation of shipowner liability was analysed in terms of noxal surrender in order to reconcile shipowner liability for inculpable ship collision with contemporary perceptions of equity.

‘Mercatores isti regulandi’: Monopolies and moral regulation of the market in Pedro de Oñate’s De contractibus (Wim Decock) 
DOI 10.1163/15718190-20220017
Abstract:

Compared to the writings of other teólogos-juristas belonging to the so-called School of Salamanca, Pedro de Oñate’s (1567-1646) De contractibus has met with little if almost no interest in the literature. It nevertheless marks an epochal achievement in the history of juridical and economic thought. Published between 1646 and 1654, Oñate’s De contractibus epitomizes five centuries of scholastic thinking about the moral regulation of the market. It is a spectacular work, addressing hundreds of problems related to contractual agreements and commercial life in general. This paper offers an overview of Oñate’s lengthy assessment of monopolistic practices, including price-fixing cartels, import barriers, the creation of artificial scarcity, and legal monopolies, including the conceptualization of intellectual property. Two major conclusions can be reached from the close-reading of Oñate’s treatment of monopolistic practices. First, Oñate’s opinions are marked by an even starker emphasis on individual rights, property and freedom than those of his colleagues working in major cities on the other side of the Atlantic. Second, his analysis is not only the reflection of his extraordinary knowledge of centuries of scholastic thinking about the morality of the market, but also of his practical experience in the New World.

Chinese international lawyer and British doctoral supervisor The case of Hwang King Hung and Hersch Lauterpacht (Li Chen)
DOI 10.1163/15718190-20220025
Abstract:

This article draws upon multi-archival research to rediscover Hwang King Hung, a forgotten Chinese international lawyer who was the first ethnic Chinese person to receive a PhD in Law from Cambridge University. Specifically, it aims to shed light on how Hwang was trained by Hersch Lauterpacht, Hwang’s doctoral supervisor, and how Lauterpacht played a crucial role in training eminent Chinese international lawyers in the first part of the 20th century. It further aims to challenge the traditional Eurocentrism of international legal history and inspire further research into the lived experiences of the pioneer generation of international lawyers from China.

Der Erbvertrag der Römer und der Erbvertrag heute Einige Erwägungen zu dem Buch von M.F. Merotto (Aleksander Grebieniow)
DOI  10.1163/15718190-20220024
Abstract:

Pacta successoria in Roman and contemporary law: observations in the margin of M.F. Merotto’s recent book. – The work I patti successori dispositivi nel diritto romano is the most recent publication tackling the problem of contractual succession according to Roman law. In the book’s introduction, Maria Federica Merotto responds to the voices calling for a more nuanced study of this phenomenon. Despite numerous exciting thoughts, the study displays shortcommings. The vast discrepancy between the declared methodological attitude and the actual course of the textual exegesis serves as a starting point for a more profound reflection on the shadow that modern legal concepts cast onto the ancient texts and the narrowness of traditional corpus of sources in conventional Roman law research.

Book reviews:

  • Antichresis en pandgebruik, De bevoegdheid van de zekerheidsgerechtigde tot gebruik, beheer en vruchttrekking in rechtshistorisch en rechtsvergelijkend perspectief, written by R. Bobbink (Author: D. Schanbacher)
  • De ondeelbaarheid van het pand- en hypotheekrecht; deconstuctie van een leerstuk, Een historisch-comparatieve studie, written by J. van Kralingen (D. Schanbacher)
  • A history of Russian law from ancient times to the Council Code (Ulozhenie) of Tsar Aleksei Mikhailovich of 1649, written by F.J.M. Feldbrugge (Martin Avenarius)
  • Loans and credit in consilia and decisiones in the Low Countries (c. 1500-1680), written by W. Druwé (Wolfgang Ernst)
  • Freedom, an unruly history, written by Annelien de Dijn (Christophe Maes)
  • Patent cultures, Diversity and harmonization in historical perspective , edited by G. Gooday [and] S. Wilf (Louis Pahlow)
Necrologie/Nécrologie/Obituary
In memoriam Margaret Louise Hewett, 1934-2022 (Jan Hallebeek)

Kroniek/Chronique/Chronicle

Ontvangen werken/Ouvrages reçus/Publications Reviewed

Read evertyhing on Brill's website.

 

PODCAST: Jacques KRYNEN on Philip IV the Fair of France and the Birth of the French State (Les grands entretiens de Storiavoce, 30 JAN 2023)

 

(image source: Gallimard)

The renowned French legal historian Prof. Jacques Krynen has been interviewed by Christophe Dickès on the podcast Storiavoce, on his most recent book covering Philip IV the Fair of France and the legal construction of the realm.

Abstract:

Dans notre mémoire nationale, la figure de Philippe le Bel reste attachée à une dérive autoritaire de la monarchie capétienne. Longtemps critiqué, il fut pourtant réhabilité par les études historiques tout au long du XIXe siècle. En effet, ce roi a fait la France à plus d’un titre. Son règne s’inscrit dans un contexte de maturation institutionnelle ainsi qu’un mouvement intellectuel juridique et philosophique de grande ampleur. Qui était donc Philippe le Bel ? Quelle fut la singularité du roi par rapport à ses prédécesseurs, Saint Louis et Philippe Auguste ? Comment comprendre les motivations de sa politique à l’égard des templiers ou du pape Boniface VIII ? Quel contenu la royauté donna au droit royal et quelle place pris la religion dans l’exercice du pouvoir ?

L’invité : 

Jacques Krynen est un historien du droit, spécialiste de l’époque médiévale et moderne. Auteur de nombreux ouvrages dont la codirection du Dictionnaire historique des juristes français, XIIe-XXe siècle paru aux PUF (2012). Professeur émérite de l’université de Toulouse Capitole, il a publié récemment : Philippe le Bel, la puissance et la grandeur (Gallimard, 160 pages, 17 €).

Listen here

(source: Storiavoce)

VIDEO: David FEUTRY & Olivier CHALINE, "Plumes de fer et robes de papier. Logiques institutionnelles et pratiques politiques au parlement de Paris" (Paris: Ecole nationale des Chartes, 2015)

(image source: Fnac)

 Abstract:

Débat autour du livre de David Feutry, "Plumes de fer et robes de papier. Logiques institutionnelles et pratiques politiques du parlement de Paris", avec Olivier Chaline, dans le cadre du cycle "Les Mardis de l'École des chartes".

Watch the video here or on Youtube.

31 January 2023

JOURNAL: Journal of the History of International Law/Revue d'histoire du droit international XXIV (2022), no. 2 (June)

 

(image source: Brill)

Articles:

The Historical Origins of the Duty to Save Life at Sea in International Law (Irini Papanicolopulu)
(DOI 10.1163/15718050-12340199)
Abstract:

The article looks into the historical development of the international law duty to save life at sea. It argues that this duty has its origins into legal sources that predated the genesis of international law in the sixteenth century. According to these sources, three separate sets of norms were developed to address the need to save life at sea: rules on the safety of navigation; rules concerning assistance to the shipwrecked and their protection; and rules on the duty of masters to provide assistance. Leaving aside the first category, the article illustrates how these sources where used by seventeenth and eighteenth century international lawyers to substantiate the existence of a duty to assist the shipwrecked and a right to seek refuge for vessels in distress. Nineteenth century scholars added the duty of the master to provide rescue. These scholarly codifications set the basis for a codification, first by learned societies and then by states, during the last decades of the nineteenth century. Codification was eventually achieved through two conventions adopted in 1910. The article argues that while the content of the duty changed to adapt to technological developments affecting navigation, as well as to changing perceptions of the sources and effects of international law, the common principle at its basis has always been part of international law.

Exclusion vs Cooperation in the Utilisation of Transboundary Watercourses: The Case for Decolonising the Nile Water Agreements (Fekade Abebe)
(DOI: 10.1163/15718050-bja10062)
Abstract:

The relationship between Egypt and Ethiopia was marked with tension for centuries due to the utilisation of the Nile river. Recently, it took a turn for the worst after Ethiopia announced it is building the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) on the Nile river. This article argues that one important explanation for the deep-seated disagreements between Egypt and Ethiopia is the history of the legal instruments frequently invoked which were set up to safeguard the colonial interest of Britain over Egypt and the entire upper Nile region. Britain’s use of these legal instruments to advance its colonial domination of the region, with disregard to the interests of native communities, had left a legacy of exclusive utilisation over the river which haunts the current legal discourse. The article argues that the Nile basin countries need to acknowledge this colonial legacy in the legal discourse and need to move towards cooperation.

Making International Law Truly ‘International’? Reflecting on Colonial Approaches to the China-Vietnam Dispute in the South China Sea and the Tribute System (So Yeon Kim) [OPEN ACCESS]
(DOI 10.1163/15718050-12340183)
Abstract:

Before non-European regions adopted international law, a different set of law of territory governed the non-European regions. Notwithstanding their differences, international courts and tribunals have approached non-European territorial disputes through a single lens of Eurocentric international law. The general claim of this article is that international courts and tribunals should approach non-European territorial disputes with special consideration to account for the region’s historical system. This article case studies the China-Vietnam dispute in the South China Sea to advance this claim. Through the case study, I argue that East Asian concepts of sovereignty do not equate with those employed by Eurocentric international law. I then suggest guidelines for considering regional systems when ruling on non-European territorial disputes. If international courts and tribunals do not change their legal approach, this not only distorts the historical realities of the non-European regions but also results in unfair dispute settlements.

Pan-Americanism as a Hemispheric Model for a Global Order? The Pan-American Peace Pact of 1914 (Klaas Dykmann)
(DOI  10.1163/15718050-12340194)
Abstract:

Some in US President Woodrow Wilson’s administration saw an opening to seize several opportunities in 1914 to present the United States as a hemispheric unifier offering an alternative for war-torn Europe. Since an international convention or a negotiated solution in Europe seemed unlikely, the US tried to establish a peace agreement for the western hemisphere to universalise American international law and multilateralise the Monroe Doctrine in a way that would mutually recognise each American republic’s sovereignty and territorial integrity and demonstrate to Europe that a negotiated peace was possible. This article analyses the emergence of the idea of the Pan-American Peace Pact and its regional and global significance in view of the League of Nations that was later established.

 Book reviews:

  • Great Britain, International Law, and the Evolution of Maritime Strategic Thought, 1856–1914, written by Gabriela Frei (Frederik Dhondt)
  • Remaking Central Europe: The League of Nations and the Former Habsburg Lands, edited by Peter Becker and Natasha Wheatley (Omer Aloni)

 Read everything on Brill's website.

 


VIDEO: Michelle PERROT on the Social History of Justice (Les entretiens de Criminocorpus)

 

The French research site Criminocorpus released an interview with the esteemed French historian Michelle Perrot on her career and the social history of justice. Watch it above or on Youtube.

GUEST LECTURE by Prof. Gisela DROSSBACH: Marriage in Church Law in England at the end of the 12th Century - 7 February 2023 - Faculty of Theology, University of Copenhagen (Center for Privacy Studies)



In this lecture Prof. Gisela Drossbach will demonstrate that the relationship between church and state in the Anglo-Norman realm favoured the extension of papal legal culture from the continent to England in the 12th century. In this ambiente the concept of marriage based on the consent of both parties, which pope Alexander III propagated by means of his rapidly developing decretal legislation, was able to prevail. This new form of marriage resulted in the protection of women who could no longer be forced into marriages, that they did not want. I will present three cases to show this clearly. But could this protection in fact be realized and would it last? It will be shown that a possible disadvantage for a woman was the fact that a form for the marriage procedure had not yet been adequately defined and there were many clandestine marriages.

If you wish to attend the lecture, please register here.

Gisela Drossbach will be visiting Centre for Privacy Studies in February 2023. She is a Professor of European Regional History at the University of Augsburg and has her research projects at the Leopold-Wenger-Institut für Rechtsgeschichte at the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitat and the Stephan Kuttner Institute of Medieval Canon Law in Munich. She wrote her ‘Habilitation’ about the “Hospital and Order of Santo Spirito in Sassia in Rome (1198-1378)” (published 2005) and her PhD about the Bavarian author Konrad von Megenberg († 1373). Her research has been funded by awards from among others the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft and Gerda-Henkel-Stiftung. Furthermore she has received fellowships from the German Historical Institutes in Rome and Paris and she has been a visiting professor at Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna, Dipartimento di Italianistica e Filologia Classica in 2021. She holds positions of different commissions like executive secretary of the Historical Society of Swabia/Bavaria and member of the Advisory Board of the Iuris Canonici Medii Aevi Consociatio (ICMAC). Her expertise is in the field of medieval juridical manuscripts, medieval canon law, text/images relations, history of religious institutions and hospitals, and Bavarian History. In these fields she has published more than 17 books and nearly 100 articles.

Details:

Time: 7 Feb. 2023, 13

Place: Room 6B.1.62, Faculty of Theology, University of Copenhagen.

Organizer: Centre for Privacy Studies

BOOK: Juan ESPINDOLA & Leigh A. PAINE (eds.), Collaboration in Authoritarian and Armed Conflict Settings (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2023). ISBN: 9780197267059, pp. 294, £70.00

 

(Source: CUP)


ABOUT THE BOOK

Who is the collaborator, or in whose eyes? What is the motivation to collaborate: for material gain, for ideology, for duty? When is collaboration betraying a hated enemy, and when is it something else: personal revenge or an instrumental, rational, or even coerced response to a situation, for example? Why do collaborators meet such harsh punishment and stigma when they are revealed as such? Can they ever atone or find redemption? Beyond the perception of the stakeholders involved, how harmful is collaboration? Does it exacerbate or abate violence? Is it always evil or can it sometimes be seen as mitigating wrongs? The chapters in Collaboration in Authoritarian and Armed Conflict Settings explore these thorny questions through a set of case studies, disciplinary approaches, and temporal and regional contexts. They show the range of the types of collaboration; the ubiquity of collaboration across time, countries, political systems, and political and cultural conflicts.


ABOUT THE EDITORS

Juan Espindola is an Assistant Professor at the Institute for Philosophical Research at the National Autonomous University of Mexico. He was trained as a political theorist at the University of Michigan. His research focuses on violence, and transitional justice. He is the author of Transitional Justice after German Reunification: Exposing Unofficial Collaborators (Cambridge University Press, 2015), and his work has appeared in journals such as Theoretical Criminology, Bioethics, Studies in Philosophy and Education, Theory and Research in Education, German Studies Review, Res Publica, and Ethical Theory and Moral Practice, Journal of Social Philosophy, and others.

Leigh A. Payne is Professor of Sociology and Latin America at the University of Oxford, St Antony's College. She has written extensively on right-wing movements, transitional justice, and human rights. She is author of Unsettling Accounts: Neither Truth nor Reconciliation in Confessions of State Violence (Duke University Press, 2008) and co-author of Transitional Justice and Corporate Accountability from Below: Deploying Archimedes' Lever (Cambridge University Press, 2020 with Gabriel Pereira and Laura Bernal-Bermúdez).


Contributors:

Juan Espindola and Leigh A. Payne

Jacob Dlamini

Ksenija Bilbija

Luis de la Calle

Mark Drumbl and Barbora Holá

Andrea L. Dennis

Gerson Iván Arias and Carlos Andrés Prieto

Ron Dudai and Kevin Hearty

Oren Gross

Colleen Murphy

Gabriel Pereira

Shane Darcy


TABLE OF CONTENTS

1:Coming to Terms with Collaboration: An Introduction,Juan Espindola and Leigh A. Payne

Part I: The Politics of Collaboration

2:Native Intelligence: African Detectives and Informers in White South Africa,Jacob Dlamini

3:Be My Character: Framing the Female Collaborator in Postdictatorship Argentine Novels,Ksenija Bilbija

4:Collaborationism in Low-Intensity Conflicts: The Case of the Basque Country,Luis de la Calle

Part II: Collaboration Moments

5:Collaboration and Opportunism in Communist Czechoslovakia,Mark Drumbl and Barbora Holá

6:Black Collaboration During American Slavery,Andrea L. Dennis

7:Third-Party Collaborators in the Colombian Armed Conflict: A Paramilitary Case Study,Gerson Iván Arias and Carlos Andrés Prieto

8:Informing, Intelligence, and Public Policy in Northern Ireland: Some Overlooked Negative Consequences of Deploying Informers against Political Violence,Ron Dudai and Kevin Hearty

Part III: Holding Collaborators Accountable

9:The Collaboration of the Intellectuals: Legal Academia and the Third Reich,Oren Gross

10:Grudge Informers and Beyond: On Accountability for Collaborators with Repressive Regimes,Colleen Murphy

11:Business Collaborators on Trial: Legal Obstacles to Corporate Accountability in Argentina,Gabriel Pereira

12:International Law and Collaboration: A Tentative Embrace,Shane Darcy

13:Conclusion: Reckoning with Collaboration,Juan Espindola and Leigh A. Payne

Index

BOOK: Filippo ROSSI, Ragionevoli dubbi. Percorsi storici del recesso unilaterale (Torino: Giappichelli, 2022), ISBN: 9788892145986

(Image source: G. Giappichelli Editore)


ABOUT THE BOOK

A giudicare dall’incessante produzione scientifica sul recesso, la rottura unilaterale del contratto pare davvero un tema che non cessa di destare interesse. Il motivo della costante attenzione sull’istituto è intuibile, del resto, considerando la latitudine delle conseguenze che esso produce. La manifestazione unilaterale di volontà, per giunta recettizia, con cui il “ritiro” unilaterale si sostanzia, presuppone una prerogativa soggettiva – quella di “pentirsi” di aver stretto l’accordo – che contraddice la concezione per cui il contratto vincola al reciproco rispetto dei patti, all’aspettativa nelle controprestazioni e al legittimo affidamento sulla loro continuazione, a meno che si decida, di comune accordo, di porvi fine. Della necessità di tale facoltà, tuttavia, non si può dubitare. Il diritto potestativo con cui una delle parti decide di “tornare sui propri passi” risponde infatti a primarie finalità di economia dei rapporti giuridici, e così pure di razionalità del sistema, anche in virtù del principio di giustizia commutativa che innerva le dinamiche contrattuali. Si tratta, insomma, di una facoltà che opera sì drasticamente sugli effetti del contratto, ma che al contempo favorisce la ricomposizione degli interessi negoziali, e per le circostanze più varie. A seconda dei casi, l’estinzione unilaterale fornisce il termine finale a un contratto che ne è privo, o interviene per evitare rapporti sine die. Consente di rimediare a disfunzioni del sinallagma (ad esempio l’inadempimento di una parte) ovvero a sopravvenienze che ne alterino l’originario equilibrio (come l’impossibilità sopravvenuta parziale). Protegge da decisioni affrettate o prese non del tutto consapevolmente, permettendo altresì, in casi specifici, di “abbandonare” il rapporto, a volte con, altre volte senza un corrispettivo per l’esercizio del “ripensamento”.


ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Filippo Rossi è ricercatore di Storia del diritto presso la Facoltà di Giurisprudenza dell’Università degli Studi di Milano, ove insegna Storia del diritto medievale e moderno e Storia dei diritti umani. Si è occupato di storia del lavoro, pubblico e privato, nonché di storia del diritto delle obbligazioni, con particolare riferimento allo scioglimento del rapporto contrattuale. Tra le sue pubblicazioni: Il cattivo funzionario nel Regno Lombardo-Veneto (Giuffrè, 2013) e La costruzione giuridica del licenziamento (Giuffrè, 2017). Ha curato il volume "Consenso e dissenso nelle codificazioni europee. Scioglimento e mantenimento del vincolo contrattuale tra storia giuridica, diritto privato e comparazione" (Pisa, 2021).


TABLE OF CONTENT

Introduzione

1. Il “problema” recesso: “rompere” da soli ciò che si è “costruito” insieme
2. Da oggi a ieri, da ieri a oggi: le ragioni di una ricostruzione storica del recesso
3. Alcune precisazioni sui termini e sui “confini” dell’indagine

Capitolo 1: Principi e formanti dello scioglimento unilaterale nel sistema contrattuale d'Antico Regime

1. Introduzione
2. L’eccezionalità del dissenso unilaterale
2.1. Il recesso penitenziale e impugnatorio nei contratti innominati
2.2. Il recesso penitenziale nei contratti nominati
2.3. Il recesso determinativo e liberatorio
2.4. I patti risolutori
3. Il principio del consenso
3.1. Promittendi animus e nuove tipizzazioni (XVI sec.)
3.2. Il consenso a prescindere dal tipo (XVI-XVII secc.)
3.3. L’abiura del recesso nel nuovo ordine delle relazioni contrattuali (XVII-XVIII secc.)
4. Il principio della forza di legge
4.1. Corti regie e usus fori (XVI-XVII secc.)
4.2. Dissertazioni, trattazioni e consolidazioni (XVII-XVIII secc.)

Capitolo 2: I Codici del primo Ottocento e il "ritiro" unilaterale dal contratto

1. Introduzione
2. I recessi nei codici di primo Ottocento 
2.1. Il blocco austro-tedesco 
2.1.1. I prodromi: le (pre)codificazioni del tardo Settecento: i “codici” bavarese (1756) e prussiano (1794)
2.1.2. Il recesso nel codice civile austriaco (1811)
2.1.3. Una via di mezzo tra i blocchi: il codice civile parmense (1820) e il codice civile galiziano (1797)
2.2. Il blocco francese
2.2.1. Il recesso nei progetti di Cambacérès (1793-1796)
2.2.2. Il sistema dei recessi unilaterali nel Code civil (1804)

Capitolo 3: il sistema dei recessi dalla seconda metà del XIX secolo

1. Introduzione
2. Una nuova lettura dell’obbligazione (e della forza di legge)
2.1. L’impostazione tradizionale: la vis costrittiva dell’obbligazione
2.2. L’obbligazione come dominio (limitato) sulla libertà altrui
2.3. Prime categorizzazioni del recesso: la dichiarazione unilaterale di disdetta (da Windscheid all’ADHGB)
3. Résiliation e congé: il recesso in Francia tra dottrina e giurisprudenza
3.1. Recesso da inadempimento vs risoluzione giudiziale
3.2. Il recesso nel louage de services
4. L’approdo al recesso in Italia
4.1. L’estinzione condivisa del contratto nel “sistema” del codice civile unitario
4.2. Utilità della controprestazione e recesso unilaterale (Rücktritt): i punti di forza del modello tedesco
4.3. Il recesso unilaterale nel discorso giuridico italiano (fine XIX sec.)
4.3.1. Recesso unilaterale e rapporto di lavoro
4.3.2. Recesso unilaterale e diritto commerciale (non più satellite)
4.4. Il primo Novecento e il “laboratorio” dei contratti (recesso vs forza di legge)
4.4.1. Usi e abusi delle imprese (dottrina e giurisprudenza alle prese con il recesso)
4.4.2. Risoluzione unilaterale e stragiudizialità: i codici della “fase matura” e il recesso
4.4.3. Costruzioni dogmatiche e bisogni sociali: il recesso come strumento generale nei rapporti contrattuali (verso il codice civile del 1942)

Conclusioni

1. Il recesso come rimedio generale nel sistema contrattuale (XX sec.)
2. Il ruolo del recesso nel sistema contrattuale (XXI sec.)


More information can be found here


30 January 2023

PODCAST: Selden Society Lecture Series Australia (Supreme Court Library Queensland, iTunes/Spotify)

 

(image source: iTunes)

Abstract:

Join a variety of judicial officers, legal professionals and academics for this informative and provocative series of legal history lectures. Each episode presents a single story uncovering a unique aspect of our common law past. This might be literature or language, a fascinating event or item, a significant person, or the development of a legal idea. These lectures are recorded in the Banco Court, Brisbane, and are now available to the world.

Listen on Spotify or iTunes

BOOK: Christian G. FRITZ, Monitoring American Federalism: The History of State Legislative Resistance (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2023), 410 pp., ISBN 9781009325578, £29.99

 

(image credit: Cambridge University Press)

Book description: 
Monitoring American Federalism examines some of the nation's most significant controversies in which state legislatures have attempted to be active partners in the process of constitutional decision-making. Christian G. Fritz looks at interposition, which is the practice of states opposing federal government decisions that were deemed unconstitutional. Interposition became a much-used constitutional tool to monitor the federal government and organize resistance, beginning with the Constitution's ratification and continuing through the present affecting issues including gun control, immigration and health care. Though the use of interposition was largely abandoned because of its association with nullification and the Civil War, recent interest reminds us that the federal government cannot run roughshod over states, and that states lack any legitimate power to nullify federal laws. Insightful and comprehensive, this appraisal of interposition breaks new ground in American political and constitutional history, and can help us preserve our constitutional system and democracy.
Table of contents: 
Introduction
1. The riddle of federalism and the genesis of interposition
2. Early state use of interposition: testing the powers of the new national government
3. State interposition and debates over the meaning of the Constitution
4. The Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions and Madison's report of 1800
5. State interposition during the Jefferson and Madison presidencies
6. State challenges to the Supreme Court's control over constitutional interpretation
7. The transformation of interposition: the theory of nullification emerges
8. State interposition and nullification on the path to secession
9. State interposition during and after the Civil War
10. Modern interposition by states and 'nullification'
Epilogue.
About the author: 
Christian G. Fritz is Emeritus Professor of Law at the University of New Mexico School of Law. He is the author of American Sovereigns: The People and America's Constitutional Tradition Before the Civil War (2008).
More information can be found here

27 January 2023

REMINDER CFP: "Boire et Manger" [Journées internationales de la Société d'histoire du droit et des institutions des pays flamands, picards et wallons] (Lille: Université de Lille, 19-20 MAY 2023); DEADLINE 31 JAN 2023

 

(Image: The Feast of the Bean King by Jacob Jordaens - Source: Google Art Project)

Les Journées d’Histoire du droit et des institutions des pays flamands, picards et wallons se tiendront à Lille les 19 et 20 mai 2023 à Lille, à l’invitation de la section française de la société.  Le thème retenu cette année est « Boire et Manger »

« Boire et manger » constitue un enjeu permanent de la vie humaine. Se nourrir est en effet un besoin vital, biologique mais aussi une pratique sociale, culturelle, parfois même identitaire. Cette activité fait alors l’objet de normes sociales mais aussi juridiques : coutumes, règlements et lois. La nourriture donne aussi lieu à des contentieux tant sur le plan communautaire, local, étatique ou international.  Toutefois si sa réglementation peut apparaitre comme un invariant historique, elle prend des dimensions différentes selon les sociétés envisagées, tant dans le temps que dans l’espace.

Le colloque envisage alors  d’évoquer l’ensemble des dimensions juridiques et historiques du sujet : les propositions de communications pourront ainsi porter sur les approvisionnements, les règlements des métiers de bouche, le statut des nourrices, les règlements sanitaires et environnementaux, les taxes sur les denrées, les droits de passage, les empoisonnements, les vols d'aliments, le dernier repas des condamnés, les ordalies alimentaires, les interdits alimentaires, les rituels sacrés (jeûnes et sacrifices), les repas officiels, etc. 

Comme il est de coutume dans nos journées, il n’est pas fixé de limite temporelle, mais les communications s’intéresseront à l’Histoire de nos provinces.  Les propositions de communication devront être adressées à Tanguy Le Marc’hadour, président de la société, à l’adresse suivante, tanguy.lemarchadour@univ-artois.fr pour le 31 janvier 2023. Elles seront accompagnées d’une brève présentation du sujet envisagé. 

Les langues de travail recommandées sont le français, de préférence, mais aussi le néerlandais et l’anglais. Quelle que soit la langue utilisée, les communicants voudront bien faire un résumé ou une brève présentation sur Power point en anglais ou en français, si la communication se fait en anglais ou en néerlandais, et en anglais ou en néerlandais, si la communication est faite en français.

(Source: VUB Core)

BOOK: Rowan DORIN, No Return: Jews, Christian Usurers, and the Spread of Mass Expulsion in Medieval Europe (Princeton, Princeton University Press 2023), ISBN: 9780691240923

 

(Image source: Stanford)


ABOUT THE BOOK

Beginning in the twelfth century, Jewish moneylenders increasingly found themselves in the crosshairs of European authorities, who denounced the evils of usury as they expelled Jews from their lands. Yet Jews were not alone in supplying coin and credit to needy borrowers. Across much of Western Europe, foreign Christians likewise engaged in professional moneylending, and they too faced repeated threats of expulsion from the communities in which they settled. No Return examines how mass expulsion became a pervasive feature of European law and politics—with tragic consequences that have reverberated down to the present.

Drawing on unpublished archival evidence ranging from fiscal ledgers and legal opinions to sermons and student notebooks, Rowan Dorin traces how an association between usury and expulsion entrenched itself in Latin Christendom from the twelfth century onward. Showing how ideas and practices of expulsion were imitated and repurposed in different contexts, he offers a provocative reconsideration of the dynamics of persecution in late medieval society.
Uncovering the protean and contagious nature of expulsion, No Return is a panoramic work of history that offers new perspectives on Jewish-Christian relations, the circulation of norms and ideas in the age before print, and the intersection of law, religion, and economic life in premodern Europe.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Rowan Dorin is Assistant Professor of History at Stanford University. He is i.a. the author of Corpus Synodalium, a prize-winning full-text database of late medieval local ecclesiastical legislation.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PART I

1 Expulsion, Jews, and Usury: trajectories of christian thought and practice

2 Inventing Expulsion in England, 1154–1272

3 Inventing Expulsion in France, 1144–1270

PART II

4 Canonizing Expulsion: the second council of Lyon, 1274

5 Disseminating Expulsion: synods, summas, and sermons

PART III

6 Emulating Expulsion: England and France, 1274–1306

7 Ignoring Expulsion: episcopal evasion and papal inaction, 1274–1400

8 Expanding (and Impeding) Expulsion: Jews, usury, and canon law, 1300–1492

Conclusion

Acknowledgments

Appendix A: Timeline of Expulsions of Jews and Christian Usurers, 1100–ca. 135

Appendix B: Usury and Expulsion in Local Ecclesiastical Legislation, 1200-ca. 1400

THE TALK

The Stanford Center for Law and History organizes also an online talk on this book with the author on 15.02.2023, see here.

COLLOQUIUM: Lo Stato costituzionale: Radici e prospettive. Giornata di studi in memoria di Maurizio Fioravanti - 10 marzo 2023 - Università degli Studi di Firenze

 

26 January 2023

BOOK: Henri BOUILLON, Renaud BUEB & Béatrice LAPÉROU-SCHENEIDER (dir.), Les grandes lois de la Ve République (Paris : Mare & Martin, 2023), ISBN 9782849346785,

 

(image source: LDGJ)

Abstract:

L'histoire de la Ve République a été scandée par de « grandes lois ». En en offrant une analyse, cet ouvrage se présente comme un monumentum legum de la Ve République. Rédigé par un spécialiste de la matière, chacun de ses chapitres traite d'une loi pour en montrer la genèse et les enjeux, ainsi que l'application qui en a été faite. L'originalité de ce travail est de s'appuyer sur les travaux parlementaires. Souvent tus par la doctrine juridique, ces travaux permettent de cerner l'esprit de chaque loi et de confronter ses ambitions initiales, énoncées dans les débats parlementaires, avec sa portée concrète. L'ouvrage entend ainsi restituer l'esprit des lois pour éclairer juristes et citoyens.

On the editors and contributors:

Henri Bouillon est Maître de conférences en droit public à l'université de Franche-Comté et membre du Centre de recherches juridiques de Franche-Comté (CRJFC). Renaud Bueb est Maître de conférences HDR en histoire du droit à l'université de Franche-Comté et membre du CRJFC. Béatrice Lapérou-Scheneider est Professeure de droit privé et de sciences criminelles à l'université de Franche-Comté et directrice du CRJFC. Contributions de Célia Berger-Tarrare, Damienne Bonnamy, Henri Bouillon, Jean-Pierre Camby, David Charbonnel, Jimmy Charruau, Paul Chauvin-Madeira, Damien Connil, Alexandre Desrameaux, Amanda Dubuis, Sarah Farhi, Hugues Fulchiron, Eudoxie Gallardo, Christophe Geslot, Muriel Guerrin, Béatrice Lapérou-Scheneider, Jean-Pierre Legros, Eliaz Le Moulec, Grégoire Leray, Delphine Martin, Jérôme Melet, Catherine Ménabé, Mathieu Petithomme, Jean-Marie Pontier, Xiawei Sun, Catherine Tirvaudey, Didier Truchet, Jean-Jacques Urvoas.

(source: LGDJ