(image source: JHI Blog)
Value, Justice, and Presumption in the Late Scholastic Controversy over Price Regulation (Andreas Blank)
In the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, theories of price regulation were developed in order to analyze the demands of justice in situations where markets cease to function—be it through natural conditions, wars, or artificially induced shortages in supply. This article investigates the relevance of the methodological notion of presumption for the legally binding power of laws concerning price regulation. In particular, the relation between presumptions (assumptions that are taken to be true unless and until proven false), the cost-and-labor theory of value, and the question of the morally binding power of laws concerning legal prices are explored.The Language of “Political Science” in Early Modern Europe (Sophie Smith)
Historians of early modern “scientia civilis” focus on two main understandings of that concept: the juridical and the rhetorical. This article focuses on another way of thinking about civil science in the early modern period, the origins and development of which are in the Aristotelian commentary tradition. This article begins with political science in Aristotle then turns to the works of commentators from Albert the Great in the thirteenth century, to the Oxford philosopher John Case in the late sixteenth. It ends on ways that this history offers new perspectives on Hobbes’s science of politics, and on the broader historiography.The Construction of the Concepts “Democracy” and “Republic” in Arabic in the Eastern and Southern Mediterranean, 1798–1878 (Wael Abu Uksa)
This article illuminates the construction of the concepts “democracy” and “republic” in the Arabic-speaking regions of the eastern and southern Mediterranean between 1798 and 1878. Examining these ideas through conceptual analysis on two levels, language construction and political discourse, the article reveals the layers these concepts acquired and their reception in the context of state reforms in the Ottoman Empire. While both “democracy” and “republic” evolved in Arabic after the French Revolution and acquired their modern morphological forms and content primarily between the 1820s and 1876, “republic” came into use and was perceived as relevant to local circumstances earlier than “democracy.”For these and more articles, see the journal's blog.